Sed Geo Final

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107 Terms

1

relief

how dark the lines around the edges are

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2

Cleavage

a preferred fracture orientation

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3

Pleochroism

grain changes color when rotated under plane-polarized light

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4

Birefringence

distinctive colors seen in anisotropic minerals under cross-polarized light

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5

twinning

crystals in the same grain formed with opposite orientation of their crystal lattice

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6

Quartz

Typically colorless in plane-polarized light, shades of gray in cross-polarized light, has low relief

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7

Calcite in thin section

Two cleavage planes, high relief, pale green and pink birefringence

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8

Easiest way to distinguish different types of feldspars

twinning

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9

lithic grains, matrix, cement

Besides the different types of individual mineral grains in a sandstone, other constituents may include:

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10

Laminar flow

low flow rates

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11

Turbulent flow

high flow velocities

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12

rolling

clasts move along the bottom of the fluid column and stay in contact with the bed

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13

saltation

particles jump or bounce along the bed surface

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14

Suspension

turbulence keeps the particles in the fluid column

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15

bedload

particles being carried by rolling and saltation

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16

suspended load

the sediment load being carried in the fluid column without interacting with the bed surface

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17

Normal grading

Grain size decrease from the bottom to the top of a single bed

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18

Reverse Grading

Increase in grain size upward within a single bed

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19

Fining upward

pattern of overall smaller grain sized upward through a number of beds

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20

coarsening upward

pattern of overall larger grain sizes upward through a number of beds

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21

Bouma Sequence

associated with turbidity currents

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22

Downstream

Ripples that form under unidirectional flow have asymmetric shapes and cross-lamination that dip

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23

Current ripple produces

cross-lamination

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24

straight-crested dune produces

planar cross-bedding

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25

sinuous-crested dune produces

trough cross-bedding

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26

plane bedding produces

planar lamination

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27

interbedded

alternations of thin beds of different lithology

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28

cross-stratification

any layering that is at an angle to the depositional horizon

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29

primary current lineation

ridges on bedding planes parallel to flow direction

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30

stoss

upstream side of a ripple

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31

lee

downstream side of a ripple

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32

wave base

the depth to which surface waves affect a water body is the

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33

Wave ripples

symmetric

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34

flood tides

Tidal currents which move water onshore

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35

Ebb tides

Tidal currents which move water offshore

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36

mud drapes

thin layer of mud on foresets of cross-stratified sand

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37

reactivation surface

a minor erosion surface within cross-stratification reflecting current reversals

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38

Tidal bundle

a cyclical variation of thickness in foreset laminae in cross-beds reflecting variations in flow strength

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39

Herringbone cross stratification

bipolar cross-stratification produced by alternating directions of ripple migration

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40

flaser bedding

isolated thin drapes of mud in a cross-laminated sand

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41

till

all deposits directly deposited by ice

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42

diamicton / diamictitie

deposits of poorly sorted material

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43

meltout till

typically deposited at the front of a glacier

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44

lodgement till

deposited at the base of a glacier

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45

True

True or false: Cross-lamination is much less common in aeolian ripples versus water-lain ripples.

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46

Grain Flow

Aeolian dunes do not migrate the same way as water-formed dunes. Sediment still migrates up the stoss side of the aeolian dune but instead of rolling down the lee side, it either blows off the top of the dune or the dune crest oversteepens and avalanching occurs in a process called __.

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47

foreshore

region between mean low and mean high tide

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48

shoreface

region below low tide and above fair weather wave base

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49

offshore-transition

region between fair weather and storm wave base

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50

offshore

region between storm wave base and the shelf break

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51

global

Eustatic refers to (global / local)___________ sea-level whereas relative refers to

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52

local

relative refers to ___________ sea level

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53

transgression

A rise in relative sea-level is called a

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54

regression

whereas a fall in relative seal-level is called a

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55

retrogradational

During a transgression, the shoreline shifts landward and the deepening upward succession of facies is called a(n) __ stacking pattern.

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56

progradational

During a regression, the shoreline shifts basin-ward and the shallowing upward succession of facies is called a(n) __ stacking pattern.

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57

progradation

The definition of a delta includes the building out of sediment into a lake or sea, a process known as ____.

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58

shallowing-upward

Because a delta progrades over time, the stratigraphic succession produced has a(n) __ pattern.

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59

delta plain,delta channel,distributary mouth bar,delta front, prodelta

Put the facies associations in order from bottom to top to represent a typical stratigraphic up-section succession that results from a prograding delta.

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60

True

True or False: A delta represents progradation during relative sea level fall whereas an estuary records retrogradation during a relative sea level rise.

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61

wave dominated

A bay-head delta, central lagoon, and beach barrier are features of this type of estuary.

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62

fining- and deepening-upward

The stratigraphic record of a tide-dominated estuary is generally...

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63

washover deposit

lobes of sand in the back-barrier emplaced by storms

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64

tidal channel deposit

sandy deposits with an erosional base that cut through the barrier deposits

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65

tide delta deposit

form on both the seaward and landward side of the barrier

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66

foreshore

seaward-dipping laminae that are deposited in the (foreshore/backshore)

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67

backshore

landward-dipping laminae that demarcate the (foreshore/backshore)

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68

False

On a wave-dominated shoreline, the finest sediments are deposited along the shoreline (foreshore and proximal shoreface) whereas coarser-grained sediments are found in the seaward parts (distal shoreface and offshore-transition).

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69

False

True or False: Beach deposits are generally texturally and compositionally immature sediments.

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70

intertidal zone

This zone within a tide-dominated shoreline that lies between low and high tide and is subaerially exposed once or twice a day.

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71

supratidal zone

This zone within a tide-dominated shoreline that lies above the high tide level and can be a salt-marsh or sabkha environment depending on the climate.

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72

finer,coarser

In general, the grain size trend along tide-dominated shorelines is (finer/coarser)-grained in the upper, supratidal zone to (finer/coarser) in lower subtidal zone

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73

tidal channels

Bi-directional cross-stratification, one of the higher velocity structures in this environment, is typically formed in the...

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74

sand flats

flaser bedding

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75

mixed flats

wavy bedding

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76

mud flats

lenticular bedding

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77

Upper shoreface

dominated by sand and affected by everyday waves

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78

Lower shoreface (offshore transition)

characterized by HCS

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79

Offshore

below storm wave base and dominated by mud deposition

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80

True

True or False: HCS are not typically preserved in shoreface deposits (the region above fairweather wave base).

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81

Tempestite

This storm deposit with a sharp erosional base overlain by planar laminated sandstone, HCS, wave-rippled sandstone, then mudstone is an example of a...

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82

transgressive lag

This is the name for a thin layer of gravel that forms during sea level rise due to reworking of sediment by wave action.

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83

depositional lobe

The region of the submarine fan that most often contains the most complete Bouma sequences is...

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84

mud-rich

The largest submarine fan systems in the modern oceans are...

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85

olistolith

large blocks of rock that avalanche down to the slope

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86

spill-over sand

sediment reworked from the edge of the shelf as a turbidity current

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87

pelagic muds

sediment that settles out of suspension

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88

debris flow

remobilization of poorly-sorted sediment-rich mixture downslope

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89

pelagic sediment

suspended sediment away from shorelines

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90

calcareous ooze

consolidates to form a fine-grained mudstone

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91

siliceous ooze

consolidates to form chert

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92

hemipelagic

fine-grained sediment directly derived from a nearby continent

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93

3000-4000m

The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is around __ deep.

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94

False

True or false: Between the depths that waves and tides act and the CCD, there are many paleowater-depth indicators that can be used to interpret ancient strata.

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95

low

The primary requirement for the formation of carbonate platforms is an environment where clastic supply is _.

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96

carbonate shelf

a platform attached to a continental landmass that is flat with a steep shelf/slope break

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97

carbonate bank

isolated platform surrounded by deep water

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98

carbonate atoll

a bank formed above a volcanic island

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99

carbonate ramp

a platform with a gentle slope into deeper water and no sharp shelf/slope break

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100

saltern

An area of hypersaline shallow water, such as a lagoon, that precipitates evaporite minerals is known as a __.

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