CHAP 26 - NUTRITION

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The sum of all chemical reactions in the body, including both anabolic and catabolic reactions, is called ______.

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264 Terms

1

The sum of all chemical reactions in the body, including both anabolic and catabolic reactions, is called ______.

metabolism

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2

In humans, body weight is determined by which of the following?

Heredity and environmental influences

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3

Which is considered a short-term regulator of appetite?

Cholecystokinin

SHORT -TERM

Cholecystokinin

Ghrelin

Peptide YY

NOT Insulin

Reason:

Insulin's primary role is to stimulate glucose and amino acid uptake. It also plays a relatively weak role in long-term appetite regulation by helping to indicate how much fat the body is storing.

NOT Acetylcholine

Reason:

Acetylcholine is not directly involved in the regulation of appetite.

NOT Gastrin

Reason:

Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates the secretion of stomach acid.

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4

Gherlin is secreted by the ______.

stomach (parietal cells)

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5

Which is an effect of peptide YY?

Decreased rate of stomach emptying

NOT Hunger

Reason:

This is an effect of ghrelin.

NOT Bile and pancreatic enzyme secretion

Reason:

This is an effect of CCK..

NOT Secretion of growth hormone releasing hormone

Reason:

This is an effect of ghrelin.

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6

______ is the sum of all chemical reactions in the body.

metabolism

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7

Which factors have been shown to affect the set point for body weight in humans?

Exercise habits

Eating habits

Hereditary factors

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8

Ghrelin

Produces the sensation of hunger and stimulates the hypothalamus to release growth hormone releasing hormone

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9

Peptide YY

Signals satiety and terminates eating; prevents the stomach from emptying too quickly

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10

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Stimulates the secretion of bile and pancreatic enzymes; suppresses appetite

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11

Which peptides are involved in short-term regulation of appetite?

Cholecystokinin

Ghrelin

Peptide YY

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12

Which nickname best describes the role of ghrelin in appetite regulation?

The hunger hormone

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13

Which function in long term appetite regulation?

Insulin

Leptin

SHORT-TERM

Cholecystokinin

Ghrelin

Peptide YY

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14

Which are effects of peptide YY?

Satiety

Decreased rate of stomach emptying

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15

Which is secreted by adipocytes in levels proportional to the amount of stored fat and thus is the primary indicator of fat reserves?

Leptin

NOT Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Reason:

CCK is secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine.

NOT Glucagon

Reason:

Glucagon is a pancreatic hormone involved in blood glucose regulation.

NOT Insulin

Reason:

Insulin is secreted by pancreatic cells.

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16

Which hormone is secreted by the pancreatic beta cells in response to elevated serum glucose levels, serves as an index of the body's fat stores, and has a small effect on appetite?

Insulin

NOT Glucagon

Reason:

Pancreatic beta cell secrete insulin in response to elevated serum glucose and the pancreatic alpha cells secrete glucagon in response to diminished serum glucose levels.

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17

Which are effects of cholecystokinin (CCK)?

Bile and pancreatic enzyme secretion

Decreased appetite

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18

Which nucleus, located in the hypothalamus, is an important brain center for appetite regulation?

Arcuate nucleus

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19

Insulin and ______ work as "adiposity signals," informing the brain of how much adipose tissue the body has and activating mechanisms for adding or reducing fat.

leptin

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20

Which is a secretion of the arcuate nucleus that inhibits eating?

Melanocortin

NOT Neuropeptide Y

Reason:

While neuropeptide Y is secreted by the arcuate nucleus, it increases eating.

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21

Leptin is produced by ______.

adipocytes

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22

How many calories are in one kilocalorie (kcal)?

1,000

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23

Insulin is secreted by the ______.

pancreas

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24

By definition, one ______ is the amount of energy (heat) required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

calorie

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25

An important brain center for appetite regulation is the arcuate nucleus of the ______.

hypothalamus

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26

Which two foods contain the most "empty calories"? Select two answers from the list below.

Candy

Alcohol

Reason:

An empty calorie, such as alcohol and sugary foods, may promote malnutrition as they blunt the appetite for food with greater nutritive value.

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27

What are the components of an ATP molecule?

adenine

ribose

phosphate

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28

Which hormone is secreted by the appetite-regulating neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and acts as a potent appetite stimulant?

Neuropeptide Y

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29

Which term is defined as any ingested chemical that is used for growth, repair, or maintenance of the body?

Nutrient

NOT Vitamin

Reason:

A vitamin is only one type of nutrient. There are other types of nutrients that are not vitamins.

NOT Calorie

Reason:

A calorie is the measure of energy ingested. A nutrient is any ingested chemical that is used for survival.

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30

One thousand calories is called a Calorie (capital C) in dietetics and a ______ in biochemistry.

kilocalorie

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31

Which of the six major classes of nutrients are considered micronutrients because only small quantities are required?

Minerals

Vitamins

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32

A calorie is the amount of energy that will raise the temperature of 1g of water ______ degrees Celsius?

1

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33

Which are types of nutrients?

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Minerals

Lipids

Vitamins

Water

NOT enzymes

NOT hormones

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34

Alcohol and sugary foods are considered ______ , calories that do not provide nutrients that the body requires.

empty calories

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35

Which term refers to nutrients that the body needs but is incapable of synthesizing in adequate amounts?

Essential nutrients

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36

Which molecule functions as a universal energy carrier used to do cellular work?

ATP

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37

Which best defines the term nutrient?

Ingested compound used for growth, repair or maintenance

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38

Which is an estimate of the daily intake of a specific nutrient that would meet the nutritional needs of most healthy people?

RDA (recommended dietary allowance)

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39

Water, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are considered which of the following?

macronutrients

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40

Which nutrient class includes sugars and glycogen?

Carbohydrates

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41

Water

Coolant; Solvent; reactant or product in many metabolic reactions, etc.

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42

Vitamins

Coenzymes for many metabolic pathways; antioxidants, etc.

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43

Lipids

Fuel; plasma membrane structure; myelin sheaths; hormones; insulation; padding around organs, etc.

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44

Proteins

Muscle contraction; enzymes; antibodies; buffers; emergency fuel, etc.

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45

Carbohydrates

Fuel; glycoproteins and glycolipids

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46

Minerals

Structure of bones and teeth; electrolytes; buffers; stomach acid, etc.

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47

What is the major function of carbohydrates in the body?

Cellular fuel

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48

The essential nutrients include which of the following?

Most vitamins

All minerals

Eight of the amino acids

One to three of the fatty acids

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49

Which are considered complex carbohydrates?

polysaccharides

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50

What is the effect of consuming less than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of a nutrient?

Increases the probability of poor nutrition

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51

Which is considered the only nutritionally significant polysaccharide?

Starch

NOT Cellulose

Reason:

Although cellulose is a polysaccharide, it is not considered a nutrient since humans lack the enzyme necessary to digest it and it never enters human tissues.

NOT Glycogen

Reason:

Although glycogen is a polysaccharide, only trivial amounts of it are present in cooked meats.

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52

Which are examples of carbohydrates?

Glycogen

Glucose

Sucrose

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53

Which are monosaccharides?

Fructose

Glucose

Galactose

disaccharide:

sucrose

maltose

lactose

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54

True or false: The major function for carbohydrates in the human body is to serve as a structural compound.

false

Reason:

In humans, carbohydrate's main function is as fuel.

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55

Based on their structure, sucrose, lactose, and maltose are classified as which of the following?

Disaccharides

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56

The glycemic index is an expression of which of the following?

How a particular dietary carbohydrate affects blood glucose level

NOT How many calories are in 1g of a particular carbohydrate

Reason:

Different carbohydrates may contain the same number of calories, but have a different glycemic index. A calorie is a measure of the total amount of energy stored in the food. The glycemic index is based on how rapidly blood sugar levels rise after ingestion of the food.

NOT How much fiber is in one serving

Reason:

Fiber is material that is not digested and therefore does not affect blood glucose. The glycemic index of a food is a measure of how rapidly it raises blood sugar levels.

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57

What are the three principle forms of dietary carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

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58

What is the RDA for carbohydrates?

125-175 g

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59

Which term refers to a carbohydrate molecule comprised of many glucose monomers?

Polysaccharide

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60

most common dietary source of

sucrose

fructose

maltose

lactose

Sucrose - Refined from sugarcane and sugar beets

Fructose - Fruits

Maltose - Germinating cereal grains

Lactose - Cow's milk

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61

Glucose is a ______.

monosaccharide (carbohydrate)

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62

Which are types of dietary fiber?

Pectin and cellulose

Dietary fiber refers to plant products that humans cannot digest and includes pectin, cellulose, lignin, etc.

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63

Which are dietary disaccharides?

Sucrose

Lactose

Maltose

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64

The effect of a dietary carbohydrate on one's blood glucose level is expressed as the ______

Glycemic index.

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65

The nutritional benefit of water-soluble fiber is that it is associated with reduction in which of the following?

example: pectin

Blood cholesterol and LDL levels

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66

Ideally, most carbohydrate intake should be in the form of ______.

starch

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67

Which are examples of water-insoluble fiber?

Lignin

Cellulose

Hemicellulose

NOT Pectin

Reason:

Pectin is a type of water-soluble fiber.

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68

Most dietary carbohydrates come from which of the following?

Plant-based foods

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69

Cholesterol is a type of ______.

lipid

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70

Plant cellulose and pectin are examples of which of the following?

Dietary fiber

Reason:

Plant cellulose and pectin are types of dietary fiber, fibrous materials of plant and animal origin that resist digestion.

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71

Which class of macronutrients provide the most energy per gram?

fat

NOT protein

Reason:

Fat contains more than twice the energy (9 kcal/g of fat) of carbohydrate and protein (4 kcal/g of carbs or protein). Also, protein IS NOT used for energy storage.

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72

Which foods contain a significant amount of water-soluble fiber such as pectin?

oats

Fruits

Brown rice

Beans

peas

carrots

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73

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are ______-soluble vitamins.

fat

Reason:

These vitamins are fat soluble and depend upon fat for their absorption by the small intestine.

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74

Which macromolecule consists of glycerol and fatty acids?

Triglyceride

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75

Cholesterol is a major structural component of ______.

plasma membranes

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76

Fat should account for no more than how much of your daily caloric intake?

35%

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77

Why is fat superior to carbohydrates for energy storage?

Fat contains more energy per gram.

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78

Which term refers to fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in the diet?

Essential fatty acids

NOT Nonessential fatty acids

Reason:

Nonessential fatty acids can be made by the body. Therefore they are not essential in the diet.

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79

Which vitamins are fat-soluble?

K

A

D

E

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80

True or false: Saturated fats are exclusively of animal origin.

false

Reason:

Although predominantly of animal origin, saturated fats are also found in some plant products such as coconut and palm oils.

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81

What is the nutritional benefit of water-insoluble fiber?

It softens the stool.

Reason:

Water insoluble fibers (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) absorb water and function as a stool softener, reducing constipation and risk of diverticulitis.

They have no effect on serum cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDLs) levels.

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82

Which are components of lipoproteins?

Lipoproteins have a core of cholesterol and triglycerides and a coating of proteins and phospholipids. There are no carbohydrate groups in lipoproteins.

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83

Cholesterol is a precursor for which of the following?

Steroid hormones(Estrogen, Testosterone)

Vitamin D

Bile acids

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84

Which are types of lipoprotein?

Chylomicrons

VLDLs

LDLs

HDLs

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85

Which statements about dietary fat are true?

Fat should account for no more than 35% of one's daily caloric intake.

People who ingest less than 20 g of fat per day are at risk of vitamin deficiency.

A well-nourished adult meets 80% to 90% of his or her resting energy needs from fat.

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86

______ include linoleic acid, and possibly linolenic and arachidonic.

essential fatty acids

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87

Which enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides contained in lipoproteins?

Lipoprotein lipase

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88

The type of fat in meats is predominately ______.

saturated fat

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89

What role does the protein and phospholipid coating of a lipoprotein serve?

Enables lipid droplets to remain suspended in the blood

Forms a recognition marker for cells

NOT Helps agglutinate cholesterol droplets so that they can be removed by WBCs

Reason:

Cholesterol is not a target of the immune system.

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90

______ are lipoproteins formed in the absorptive cells of the small intestine that serve to carry dietary fats from the intestine to the body's cells.

Chylomicrons

NOT LDLs

Reason:

Low density lipoproteins are produced by the liver.

NOT HDLs

Reason:

High density lipoproteins are produced by the liver.

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91

______ is a serum lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from the liver to other tissues.

LDL

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92

What is the role of lipoprotein lipase?

To hydrolyze triglycerides in lipoproteins

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93

After depositing triglycerides in the adipose, VLDLs become which of the following?

LDLs

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94

What is the benefit of having a high blood level of HDL?

HDL removes excess cholesterol from the circulation.

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95

True or false: High dietary intake of cholesterol increases cholesterol synthesis by the liver.

FALSE

Reason:

It is the high intake of saturated fats that increases liver synthesis of cholesterol.

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96

What are chylomicrons?

Lipoproteins that carry dietary fats from intestines to body cells

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97

Which are examples of important proteins in the body?

Hemoglobin

Keratin

Enzymes

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98

True or false: Elevated LDL is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

true

Reason:

LDL is a serum lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from the liver to other tissues, which signifies a high rate of cholesterol deposition in the arteries.

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99

The lipoprotein called ______ is produced by the liver and transports lipids to the adipose tissue for storage.

VLDL

NOT LDL

Reason:

LDLs are formed from VLDLs when their triglycerides are removed in the adipose tissue.

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100

A high blood level of which type of lipoprotein is considered desirable?

High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

NOT Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)

Reason:

A high VLDL concentration is considered undesirable since VLDL helps deposit cholesterol on the walls of arteries.

NOT Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Reason:

A high LDL concentration is considered a warning sign because it signifies a high rate of cholesterol deposition in the arteries.

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