APUSH Unit 4

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Southern Society

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1

Southern Society

Oligarchy Slavocracy or plantocracy: Those owning plantations and slaves had more power

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Oligarchy

A few people are in power: 1733 families had over 100 slaves and power Not justifiable

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Planter aristocracy

Slaves not seen as citizens Dominated state governments-help pass laws to stop abolition Have generational wealth

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Poor white farmers

Jefferson's “American Dream”- they hope to become a rich plantation owner Racial alliance- stick together to have some power Grateful to have a social class below them

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Appalachians

“Mountain whites” No benefit from slavery: DON'T SUPPORT IT Resented planters

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6

Upholding Slavery

Economy: -King Cotton: was 2/3 of U.S economy, 99% of it from South -Don't know what slaves will do, who will work, and the bad effect on economy

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Cotton Gin

Machine that helps separate cotton from plants Makes slavery for cotton industry even more viable SLAVERY STAYS

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Slavery Arguments

  1. Economic

  2. Social

  3. Political-Leverage economical power to advantage in government

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9

The Opposition

Abolition movements-movements to end slavery Different forms: American Colonization Society American Antislavery Society Liberty Party Violent abolition strategy

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10

American Colonization Society

enslaved persons freed and sent to Africa

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11

American Antislavery Society

uncompromising; immediate abolition

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12

Liberty Party

gradual phase out via laws

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13

Violent abolition strategy

Enslaved persons should revolt

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14

Spreading the Word

Newspapers Autobiographies Books Illustrations and photographs Interviews

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15

Newspapers

The Northern Star: Frederick Douglas' newspaper. Black Abolitionist Targeted at kids to make kids abolitionist as well

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Movement Location

Organized abolition rooted in North -Some resistance Non-organized in South

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Organized Resistance

Founded in North From Business Organizations to Political Parties: Organized things for abolition

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18

Non-Organized

In South Spontaneous slave revolts, etc.

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19

Martin Van Buren

His success and failures are because of Andrew Jackson

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Martin Van Buren Fails

Had to go through Financial Crisis -Panic of 1837: caused in part by Jackson’s war on banks-less jobs, unemployment, etc.

Seminoles Revolt due to Indian Removal Act -2nd Seminole War: Costed too much to cover it up

ONE TERM PRESIDENT

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William Henry Harrison

Father of Modern Campaigning Wins, then dies 30 days into office VP John Tyler→10th President

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22

John Tyler

Whig but believes in states rights form of government Didn't like Nullification Act

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Whig Party

Collective group of people that hate Andrew Jackson Not all are politically aligned

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Manifest Destiny: Texas

-Mexican independence → 1821 --Allowed Americans to bring slavery there for economy ---Americans outnumber Mexicans in Texas 3:1 -Statehood: Texas

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Texas Problem

Slavery: Will it be a free or slave state? Already many slaves If kept as slave state, breaks Missouri Compromise

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Manifest Destiny: Maine

Aroostook War Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)-Creates boundary

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Aroostook War-

More of an international incident --Handled diplomatically

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Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)

Creates boundary Avoids conflict

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Manifest Destiny: Oregon

Before: Treaty of 1818- joint custody with GB ---WAS ONLY SUPPOSED TO BE 10 YEARS U.S and GB don't want to share Ended in compromise49th parallel

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Election of 1844

President Polk Clay vs Polk Battle of Manifest Destiny CLOSE ELECTION

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Henry Clay

Weird Position on Manifest Destiny Thinks that the U.S should wait to annex Texas Weird position cost him the NY Vote

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James Polk

Won election "Vote for me- get Texas" Polk compromises for Oregon and 49th parallel Mexican American War ---Gets U.S lots of territory

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Mexican American War

Polk sent John Slidell to negotiate --25 mill for Cali and Texas: Mexico declines

Rio Grande Crisis- Baited Mexicans into fighting -Crushed them Get Nevada, Texas, Cali, Utah, and more

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Rio Grande Crisis

Manufactured by Polk so that he doesn't look like he started a war Sent troops to Rio Grande to "Fortify": Is in Mexico's area Mexico thinks U.S attacked: Killed 11 Americans U.S Declares war; destroys them

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Mexican Cession --U.S gets shit: Nevada, Cali, Texas, Utah, etc.

Wilmot Proviso- a bill proposed to ban slavery in the newly annexed areas --Gets rejected: INSTILLS FEAR IN SOUTH

Creates sectionalism: Support in certain regions, not the whole country

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Cuba

Southerners viewed it as perfect place to expand --Franklin Pierce(president) wants to as well Ostend Manifesto- Meeting to get it; put in magazines North outraged- creates distrust

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Ostend Manifesto

Diplomatic meeting with Spain, France, and Britain to reason why U.S should get Cuba Publishers publish it in Newspaper Abolitionists outraged: South is keeping secrets --Pierce doesn't go through DAMAGES NORTH/SOUTH BOND

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Baja California and Nicaragua

Walker Expedition(1853-1860) --Filibuster/"Freebooter" Take Nicaragua Dream: Create a slavery empire in the West Angers North Again

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William Walker

Took a team of mercenaries and takes over land in the name of the U.S w/o U.S authorizing it Dream: Create a slavery empire in the West where he is the king. Takes Nicaragua for 10 years Damages North/South relationship again

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Gadsden Purchase

U.S wanted Arizona for creating a railroad Bought it from Mexico for 10 million Mutual benefit

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California

Gold Rush (1849) -Immigrants and 49ers -Local governments overwhelmed-statehood necessary -presented a constitution --BANNED SLAVERY

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California Impacts

Upset balance of slave vs non-slave states Native Americans slaughtered for land

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Act for the Government and the Protection of the Indians

Alienates Indians Courts won't help Indians: imprisoned wrongfully If Native American in Jail, must pay back in U.S currency If Native American is bailed out of Jail by American, basically become that person's slave Slavery in California basically

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Compromise of 1850

California=free state No more slave trade in D.C Rest of Mexican Cession Area=slavery FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Nobody is happy

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Fugitive Slave Law

Law that facilitates the return of escaped slaves to their owner ALLOWS NORTH TO SEE SLAVERY EFFECTS

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Effects of Compromise

Neither are happy South: Losing political power North-Abolitionists outraged at fugitive slave law BUYS UNION TIME→ RESENTMENT BUILDS ---North industrializes

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Northern Nullification

Slavery becomes real to them Distant issue → direct issue Personal Liberty Laws → nullification --BIG CONDRADICTION (didn't let South nullify) Underground Railroad (1830s - 1860s) --Black led(Harriet Tubman)- didn't save that much --Symbolic- Makes South lose pride

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Abolitionist Books

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) -Harriet Beecher Stowe -Moral argument challenged apathy Impending Crisis of the South (1857) --Hinton R. Helper --Economic argument

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin

1852 Best selling book besides Bible Fiction from the perspective of a slave→ appeals to morals Banned by Southern Oligarchs South made Aunt Phil's cabin as a rebuttal→ was unsuccesful

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Impending Crisis of the South

(1857) Economic argument-appeals to logic Says that the economy is less advanced bc of slavery- Not industrializing Says that it pushes small farmers out of work

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Election of 1848

Lewis Cass (D)-seen as safe; not extreme but still slavery --Popular sovereignty(ppl vote for slavery) Martin Van Buren- Free Soil Party --Abolitionist party-regional support Zachary Taylor (Wh) -War hero; Intentionally Vague on slavery-Won election

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Zachary Taylor

Whig War hero Intentionally Vague on slavery Won election-died 30 days into office VP Millard Fillmore becomes president

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Election of 1852

National parties weakening → sectionalism Winfield Scott (Wh)-platform not aligned-divided Whigs -Northern Whigs: opposed platform, accepted candidate -Southern Whigs: supported platform, hated candidate Franklin Pierce (D) -Seen as safe vote for Democrats -Shit on Scott in election '52= DEATH OF WHIGS

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Franklin Pierce

Democrat War hero Known as worst president of all time; did nothing to aid North vs South feud

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Stephen Douglas

Opens old wounds Wants to develop the West by adding states Slavery???

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

Repeals Missouri Compromise Kansas and Nebraska admitted by popular sovereignty "Bleeding Kansas"-people move to Kansas/ Nebraska to vote- --Becomes violent-shows popular sovereignty is not viable --Pierce goes MIA

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Brooks vs Sumner

Preston Brooks-HoR Sumner-Abolitionist Senator --Calls out people for beef: Mentioned one of Brooks' family members --Brooks beats up Sumner-he had to go to Europe to survive

North-View Sumner as hero South-View Brooks as hero-take pieces of Sumner's cane and wear it as a necklace TURNING POINT: IRREPERABLE DIVIDE

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The Third Party System

Republican party emerges --Made of Free Soilers, anti-slavery Whigs and Northern Democrats -A NORTHERN/WESTERN party Initially moderate-look to stop expansion of slavery

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Election of 1856

James Buchanan (D) vs. John Fremont (R) -Good loss: Got 114 votes in 1st election as a party Shows that Republican party is here to stay --PAVES WAY FOR LINCOLN

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60

Dred Scott vs Sandford

(1857) Scott- slave; sued for his freedom Ruling: Black man can’t be a citizen → cannot sue Missouri Comp. was unconstitutional *Slaves could be brought into free states and held North doesn't listen South questions the point of being in Union

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Election of 1860

Democratic Party Splits in Two -Stephen Douglas for North → Pop. Sov. & support Fugitive Slave Law -John Breckenridge for South → expansion and annexation Lincoln Wins because of division SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDES

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Secession Effects

Buchanan does nothing Crittenden Compromise Fort Sumter (1861)

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Crittenden Compromise

6 new amendments including… Reinforced protections for slavery in south → Congress cant attack it, no future amendment could attack it Personal Liberty Laws(laws to stop Fugitive Slave Law)=unconstitutional→ repealed REINSTATES MISSOURI COMPROMISE

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Fort Sumter

(1861) Federal fort claimed by seceded South Lincoln reinforces it → challenge to south Either accept or attack → ATTACK STARTS CIVIL WAR

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Memminger beliefs

North Carolina can leave Law of Compact -Handling of Fugitive Slave Law → broken compact If slavery is abolished —> the equal rights of all states are lost -Fed. gov. is trampling Southern rights

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Lincoln beliefs

North Carolina can't leave Governments → perpetual(never ending) No “self-destruction” in constitution Leaving Union does not make it “more perfect”

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Union Advantages

Military → population(22 mil to 5 mil), infrastructure, the navy Economic → 85% of factories, 65% of farmlands (food), banking Political → strong central gov., popular leader --Easy to organize Transportation: More railroads → can transfer supplies faster

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Confederacy Advantages

Military → defensive conflict: only need to outlast, not win geographical advantages-On their ground: know it better Economic → “King Cotton” provides money; opportunity to get support from the British Political → clear motivation: Slavery

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Confederacy Disadvantages

States rights ideology works against war effort -Each state has different ideas: don't work well together Less numbers

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Union Goals

Goal → preserve Union (not abolition) -Unconditional surrender: Only way to win

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Leadership: Union

President: Abraham Lincoln Revolving door of Generals: Winfield Scott - “architect” George McClellan - slow Ambrose Burnside - brash Ulysses S. Grant - strategic William Tecumseh Sherman - total war

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Confederacy Goals

Goal → establish the Confederate States of America (CSA) -Fight back aggressive North Outlast them, not win: War of attrition

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Leadership: Confederacy

President: Jefferson Davis-Less power bc of state's rights governmentStrong Military Leadership Robert E. Lee Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Both are arguably the best- Union wanted them at first but they declined

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Union Strategy

  1. Blockade of Southern ports → “Anaconda Plan”

  2. Divide CSA at the Mississippi River- cuts off Western half

  3. Be aggressive!- What Lincoln wanted

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Confederate Strategy

  1. War of Attrition → outlast

  2. Get help- King Cotton to get Britain

  3. Be defensive!

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Scope of War

Lincoln still trying to frame the war as if to save the Union Wants to keep the border states: Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware

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Fight For Freedom

Confiscation Acts (1861/62) -Using “chattel slavery” against the South -If land taken over, slaves come with the land

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Confiscation Acts

1861/62 -Using “chattel slavery” against the South -If land taken over, slaves come with the land Emancipation Proclamation -Issued after Battle of Antietam (1862)

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Battle of Antietam

1862 Lots of soldiers lost Big win for Union Reason for Emancipation Proclamation

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Emancipation Proclamation

Frees slaves IN CONFEDERACY -Border states not threatened but starts the furthering of Lincoln's agenda

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Emancipation Proclamation Effects

Slaves in CSA states were freed --Many join Union military Reframed the war → fight for unity AND freed Shut the door on Britain helping the CSA -Bad look if they support the side with slavery

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Lincoln Control

Total war → life is changed Suspension of writ of habeas corpus Conscription Act (1863) -Voluntary to draft -New York Draft Riots (1863) Executive action -Raised troops/money without congress

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New York Draft Riots (1863)

A bunch of Irish people attack black people because they don't want to fight --Some people die

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Conscription Act (1863)

Less people volunteer for war→ draft for war -Rich people could get out of it by paying a bunch of money

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Suspension of writ of habeas corpus

No need for evidence to put people in jail --Probable cause 13k people locked up for being "spies" Most arrested at the border states

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Economic Changes

Republican congress capitalizes --Moriff Tariff (1861) --Homestead Act (1862) --Pacific Railway Act (1862) --National Banking System (1863) Industry stimulated, millionaires created

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Moriff Tariff

1861 Protect Industry/ raise money EASILY PASSED -South couldn't object because they left

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Homestead Act

1862 Small plots of land allocated to small farmers

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Pacific Railway Act

1862 Railway from East to West Coast Connects both sides of the U.S

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National Banking System

1863 Facilitated the selling of war bonds -Invest in U.S

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Sherman’s March

Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864) --“scorched earth” --TAKE GEORGIA

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Election of 1864

--McClellan vs. Lincoln Easy Lincoln dub

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End of the War

Surrender at Appomattox --South exhausted Realize that they are weak: surrender

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Civil War Impacts

Deadliest war in US history Cost $15-20 billion End of Hamilton vs Jefferson: Hamilton Wins- U.S→ industrial -NULLIFICATION AND SECESSION NO LONGER CONCERN

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Aftermath of the Civil War

620,000 dead Americans 4,000,000 newly-freed African Americans 11 defeated Confederate states

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Reconstruction: Lincoln

“South never left” Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) -“10% plan” -Amnesty oath PASSED THE 13TH AMENDMENT

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10% plan

10% of the vote from people in South makes them formally join Union Amnesty Oath: Can only vote if they swear to not revolt

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Wade-Davis Bill

1864 “50% plan” Ironclad oath POCKET VETO'D

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50% plan

50% of vote needed to be added back to the Union

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Ironclad Oath

To vote, people must not revolt or must not have revolted before. PREVENTS PREVIOUS CONFEDERATES FROM VOTING

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