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101 Terms

1

essentialism

describes religion as having a set of characteristics that constitute its essence (eg belief in a divine being, a feeling of awe, concern about the ultimate)

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2

functionalism

describes religion in terms of the purpose it can serve to society

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3

family resemblance

polythetic; shared traits between many members is what defines religion (discourse, practices, community, institution)

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4

myth

stories reflecting the great deeds of the Gods, which function as foundational stories for religious traditionsmyth does not necessarily = falsehood

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5

orthodoxy

focus on right belief/doctrine, the opposite of heresy

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6

heresy

belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine

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7

monotheism

belief in one divine being or God

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8

polytheism

belief in a divine world of many Gods and spiritual forces

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9

henotheism

the worship of one god without denying the existence of other gods

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10

apocalypse

a prophetic revelation, especially one concerning the end of the world

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11

eschatology

the study of last things or end times (often refers to the 'second coming of Christ')

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12

soteriology

the study of the doctrine of salvation

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13

canon

the sacred and authoritative scriptures/doctrine of a religious group

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14

apocrypha

biblical or related writings not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture

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15

noah

the righteous man who, with his family and the animals, survived the Flood

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16

abraham

the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac

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17

moses

(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus

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18

david

(Old Testament) the 2nd king of the Israelites

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19

the patriarchs

The ancient fathers of the Jewish people, whose stories are recounted in the Book of Genesis (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob)

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20

maccabees

the nickname of the Hasmoneans, a priestly family who led the revolt against the Seleucid Greeks and liberated Palestine for a few decades before the Roman conquest of the East

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21

pharisees

a nonpriestly group whose concern about religious purity and the study of the Torah and oral traditions gave them popular influence in society. they influenced rabbinic Judaism

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22

saducees

the religious elite who controlled the Jerusalem temple and its economy. they rejected the oral Torah and some of the newer ideas in Judaism

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23

zealots

radical Jews who supported rebellion against the Romans

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24

rabbinic judaism

main form of Judaism, which emerged during the first century AD under the leadership of the rabbis; clarified Jewish practice, elevated the oral law to equal authority with the written Torah and enabled Judaism to evolve flexibly

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25

kabbalists

a general term for Jewish mystics that sought to 'decode' scripture and symbolically interpret it

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26

reform

founded in the 1800s, emphasizes an ethical monotheism rather than ritual, law, and messianic expectations (helped with modernization)

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27

orthodox

most loyal to rabbinic Judaism of all the groups, stayed true to traditional practice and beliefs. believes Torah and Talmud are not subject to change

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28

zionist

a member of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state

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29

ten commandments

A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.

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30

covenant

A solemn agreement between human beings or between God and a human being in which mutual commitments are made.

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31

torah

A Hebrew word meaning "law," referring to the first five books of the Old Testament.

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32

tanak

the Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions--the Torah and the Prophets and the Writings

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33

supersessionism

the view that Christians had superseded or replaced Jews as God's chosen people, this led to Jews being oppressed

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34

dispensationalism

an idea that suggests that God's covenant with Israel is postponed until the end of history (historical progression), and that the Jewish people will be granted dispensation as a people distinct from christians

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35

mishnah

Written down in about AD 200; contains collected teachings of the rabbis of the preceding four centuries; along with the Talmud, is the most important text of the oral Torah.

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36

the akedah

the binding, refers to the sacrifice of Isaac

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37

the shema

a prayer from the Book of Deuteronomy reminding the Jewish people to love God with all their heart, soul, and strength

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38

divine names for god

Seven names: El, Elohim, Adonai, YHWH, Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, Shaddai, Tzevaot

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39

temple

the holy place in Jerusalem where Jewish people gathered to worship God

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40

golem

an artificial being in Hebrew folklore endowed with life (think prometheus with his clay)

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41

circumcision

the surgical removal of the male foreskin; it was the physical sign of the covenant between God and Abraham

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42

holocaust

a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering

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43

rabbi

a highly respected teacher of Jewish law or theology (bishop to me)

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44

tetragrammaton

a compound word meaning "four letters" which is applied to the formal name of God found in the Hebrew Bible. (YHWH) Usually rendered as LORD in English translations of the Old Testament

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45

kashruth

strict dietary laws regulating what is kosher according to Jewish law

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46

yarmulke/kippah

a skullcap worn by religious Jews (male)

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47

messiah

Savior sent by God

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48

jesus

A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. He is the basis of the world's largest religion (never identified as christian)

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49

paul

follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world, the most important early theologian and credited writer of most of the texts in the bible

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50

peter

one of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome

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51

marcion

is typically credited as the first person to form a "Christian" canon, containing only ten Pauline epistles, and a shorter version of the Gospel of Luke. he is generally regarded as a heretic by most christians

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52

constantine

the first Christian emperor of Rome. He paved the way for the establishment of Christianity as the sole legal religion in the Roman Empire

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53

martin luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. sparked protestant reformation

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54

new testament

The twenty-seven books of the Bible written in apostolic times, which have the life, teachings, Passion, death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus Christ and the beginnings of the Church as their central theme.

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55

old testament

The forty-six books of the Bible that record the history of salvation from Creation until the time of Christ.

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56

bible

main term for Christian canon, consists of the old testament and the new testament

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57

mythicist argument

The argument that Jesus literally didn't exist, his life is a fable.-There are no reliable references to the existence of Jesus in any non-Christian sources of the first century. And if he was so important, why aren't there such references?-The Christ myth repeats prior death/resurrection motifs found with other deities (e.g. Isis/Osiris, Dionysus).-The gospels are biased, and we can't trust them. (Relatedly, the gospels are all just basically iterations of Mark, which was the first gospel that was written).-Paul's letters say virtually nothing of the historical Jesus.

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58

pauls letter to the galatians

a letter from paul to the gentiles of Galatia, encouraging them to follow his previous teachings of Christ, and not to pay heed to any "agitators" (individuals encouraging the practice of traditional Jewish law)

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59

ninety-five theses

short debating points by Martin Luther primarily regarding abuses in the indulgence system. sparked the protestant reformation

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60

gospels

Four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings

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61

the trinity

The idea that God, although one, is three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

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62

predestination

Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation

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63

cross

a symbol based on the wooden structure on which Jesus was executed

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64

chi-rho

a monogram of chi (Χ) and rho (Ρ) as the first two letters of Greek Khristos Christ, used as a Christian symbol.

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65

IHS

The first three letters in the Greek word for Jesus.

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66

dove

Symbol of the Holy Spirit (think noah)

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67

fish

an early symbol of Jesus, often associated with the Eucharist

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68

lamb

A symbol for Jesus in painting and sculpture. Both get sacrificed.

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69

disciple

a follower, or one who is 'taught'

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70

apostle

generally, one who is commissioned to perform a task, from an ancient Greek word meaning "sent out"

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71

pope

head of the Roman Catholic Church

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72

baptism

sacrament by which God cleanses all sin, and one becomes a member of the church.

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73

eucharist

a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine. (just taking sacrament then?)

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74

incarnation

The belief that God took human form in Jesus

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75

roman catholic

the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy

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76

protestant

Christian who belongs to non-Catholic churches, rooted in the reformation of the 1500s

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77

325 AD

date of council of nicea (a council discussing Jesus in relation to God. it was concluded that he is the son of God and therefore has his essence whatever that means IM TIRED ITS 4AM)

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78

1517

date of luther's 95 theses

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79

orthopraxy

focus on right practice and right use of rituals

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80

Rosh Hashanah

Jewish New Year festival

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81

Yom Kippur

Jewish Day of Atonement- fasting and reflecting on one's sins

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82

Sukkot

fall harvest festival

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83

Hannukah

An eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165 BC

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84

Purim

A joyous festival in early spring that recalls the Jews' being saved from destruction, as told in the Book of Esther

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85

Pesach

Festival of Passover, commemorates the deliverance of Israel from captivity in Egypt

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86

Shavuot/Pentecost

Celebrates when Torah was given to Moses at Mt. Sinai, when the Covenant was established

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87

721/722 BCE

Fall of Northern Kingdom to Assyrians

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88

70 CE

Destruction of Second Temple

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89

the exodus

God's liberation of the Hebrew people from slavery in Egypt and his leading them to the Promised Land.

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90

lutheran

the first Protestant religion, based on Martin Luther's basic ideas about a Bible-based religion and justification by faith

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91

reformed

emphasized predestination and a Presbyterian from of church government

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92

anabaptist

mennonites, hutterites, and amish; also called the Radical Reformation because of it's rejection of church-state ties, adult baptism, pacifism, etc

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93

anglican

relating to the Church of England, a 'middle way' between Catholicism and Protestantism

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94

methodist

Grew out of the beliefs of John Wesley, focused on a person's personal relationship with God. Led by common folks and spread their message through traveling ministers (circuit writers)

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95

baptist

emphasizes adult baptism and personal choice, largest protestant group in the US

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96

pentecostal

A family of Protestant Christian churches that emphasize a "second baptism" of the holy spirit, speaking in tongues, faith healing, and intense emotionalism in worship.

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97

epiphany

the date that originally marked the birth of Jesus (Jan 6)

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98

lent

40 day fast preceding Easter

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99

easter

the day on which Christians celebrate Jesus' resurrection from the dead

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100

pentecost

The fiftieth day following Easter, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit on the early Apostles and disciples.

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