Bio Chem Exam #4

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enzyme whose endergonic nature depends on keto-enol tautomerism

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

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162 Terms

1

enzyme whose endergonic nature depends on keto-enol tautomerism

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

pyruvate kinase

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2

exported compound during high levels of beta oxidation which allosterically activates fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

citrate

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3

product of the adrenal cortex that activates PEPCK and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expression

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

cortisol

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4

mitochondrial enzyme using a biotin cofactor

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

pyruvate carboxylase

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5

redox enzyme that forms a thioester bond to substrate

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

GAPDH

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6

source of GTP for PEPCK

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

succinyl coA synthetase in the CAC

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7

gluconeogenic enzyme requiring especially high levels of ATP

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

phosphoglycerate kinase

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8

enzyme with a high Km for glucose which invests an ATP for retention in the Islet beta cell

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

glucokinase

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9

allosterically inhibits pyruvate kinase

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

alanine

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10

compound whose low energy drives the exergonic nature of the production of "profit" ATPs during glycolysis

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

3-phosphoglycerate

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11

enzyme with a low Km for glucose which invests an ATP for retention within the muscle cell

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

hexokinase

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12

anchoring transcription factor for the GRs bound to weak GREs whose function is negated by Akt/PKB action

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

Fox01

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13

cytoplasmic gluconeogenic enzyme using a biotin cofactor

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

PEPCK

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14

reduced form of OAA that is channeled to the cytoplasm to feed gluconeogenesis

alanine

citrate

cortisol

FoxO1

GAPDH

glucokinase

hexokinase

malate

PEPCK

3-phosphoglycerate

phosphoglycerate kinase

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate kinase

succinylCoA synthetase in the CAC

malate

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15
<p>Match from CAPS to: PEPCK</p>

Match from CAPS to: PEPCK

G

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16
<p>Match from CAPS to: PYRUVATE KINASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: PYRUVATE KINASE

F

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17
<p>Match from CAPS to: HEXOKINASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: HEXOKINASE

A

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18
<p>Match from lower case letters to: pyruvate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: pyruvate

j

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19
<p>Match from CAPS to: LDH</p>

Match from CAPS to: LDH

J

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20
<p>Match from lower case letters to: glucose</p>

Match from lower case letters to: glucose

a

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21
<p>Match from CAPS to: FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE

K

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22
<p>Match from lower case letters to: NADH</p>

Match from lower case letters to: NADH

r

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23
<p>Match from lower case letters to: ATP</p>

Match from lower case letters to: ATP

m

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24
<p>Match from lower case letters to: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

d

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25
<p>Match from lower case letters to: acetylCoA</p>

Match from lower case letters to: acetylCoA

u

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26
<p>Match from lower case letters to: ADP</p>

Match from lower case letters to: ADP

n

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27
<p>Match from lower case letters to: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

e

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28
<p>Match from lower case letters to: GDP</p>

Match from lower case letters to: GDP

s

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29
<p>Match from lower case letters to: fructose-6-phosphate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: fructose-6-phosphate

c

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30
<p>Match from lower case letters to: NAD+</p>

Match from lower case letters to: NAD+

o

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31
<p>Match from lower case letters to: lactate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: lactate

g

Match from lower case letters to: oxaloacetate

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32
<p>Match from lower case letters to: oxaloacetate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: oxaloacetate

k

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33
<p>Match from lower case letters to: glucose-6-phosphate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: glucose-6-phosphate

b

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34
<p>Match from lower case letters to: phosphoenolpyruvate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: phosphoenolpyruvate

i

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35
<p>Match from CAPS to: PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE

H

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36
<p>Match from lower case letters to: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

f

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37
<p></p><p>Match from lower case letters to: AMP</p>

Match from lower case letters to: AMP

v

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38
<p>Match from CAPS to: GAPDH</p>

Match from CAPS to: GAPDH

D

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39
<p>Match from CAPS to: PFK-1</p>

Match from CAPS to: PFK-1

C

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40
<p>Match from CAPS to: GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATASE

B

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41
<p>Match from lower case letters to: 3-phsophoglycerate</p>

Match from lower case letters to: 3-phsophoglycerate

h

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42
<p>Match from lower case letters to: GTP</p>

Match from lower case letters to: GTP

t

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43
<p></p><p>Match from CAPS to: PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE</p>

Match from CAPS to: PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE

E

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44

decarboxylates a three-carbon alpha keto acid, reducing NAD+ with the bond electrons, and producing a thioester bond of the remaining two-carbon product to CoA

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

PDH

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45

hydrolyzes a thioester-bonded six-carbon intermediate in a highly exergonic standard state reaction

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

Citrate synthase

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46

performs simple hydride transfer reduction of NAD+ combined with decarboxylation in an exergonic standard state reaction

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

isocitrate dehydrogenase

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47

decarboxylates a five-carbon alpha keto acid, reducing NAD+ with the bond electrons, and producing a thioester bond of the remaining four-carbon product to CoA

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

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48

phosphorylyzes a thioester-bonded four-carbon compound to produce an acyl-phosphate that participates in substrate-level phosphorylation

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

succinyl-CoA synthetase

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49

inner membrane complex that conducts a redox reaction as part of the CAC to donate electrons directly to the ETS

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

succinate dehydrogenase

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50

performs simple hydride transfer reduction of NAD+ in a highly endergonic standard state reaction

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

malate dehydrogenase

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51

uses high energy electrons to both pump matrix protons and loading matrix protons on a ubiquinol to carry them to the intermembrane space

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex 1)

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52

uses a covalently-bound FAD to donate CAC electrons and matrix protons reduce of ubiquinone

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

succinate dehydrogenase

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53

delivers ubiquinone protons to the intermembrane space and electrons to multiple cytochrome-c-s

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

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54

uses cytochrome-c provided electrons to reduce molecular oxygen to produce low energy water

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

cytochrome c oxidase

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55

in order, each of the ten c subunits of the merry-go-round of ATP synthase first donate a proton from its _____ to the matrix when it comes into contact with the a subunit's half channel to the matrix

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

aspartic acid

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56

the c subunit become negatively charged at first contact with a subunit because of its deprotonated ______

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

aspartate

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57

movement of the merry-go-round is powered by the attraction of the negatively charged c subunit to _____ at the end of the a subunit's half channel from the intermembrane space

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

arginine

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58

The a subunit's ____ protonates the c subunit and is itself re-protonated from protons delivered to it by the half channel from the intermembrane space

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

arginine

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59

the turning of the merry-go-round turns a _____ cam-shaft which produces the changes among the three states of the three alpha/beta dimeric enzymes that synthesize ATP

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

gamma subunit

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60

ADP + Pi bind to the ____ during ATP synthase action

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

alpha/beta subunit L state

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61

a water molecule is withdrawn and trapped as ATP is synthesized in the _____ of ATP synthase

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

alpha/beta subunit T state

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62

a water molecule is withdrawn and trapped as ATP is synthesized in the _____ of ATP synthase

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

alpha/beta subunit T state

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63

a parallel beta sheet is disrupted by the spinning camshaft to release ATP and water in the ____ of ATP synthase

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

alpha/beta subunit O state

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64

in the water trap of ATP synthase what interacts with the polar H's of water?

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

glutamate

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65

in the water trap of ATP synthase what interacts with the polar O of water?

Citrate synthase

PDH

Cytochrome b-c1 complex (III)

Aspartic acid

Gamma subunit

Alpha/beta subunit T state

Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c oxidase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Alpha/beta subunit L state

Arginine

Malate dehydrogenase

Lysine

Alpha/beta subunit O state

Aspartate

Glutamate

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

lysine

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66

When a cytoplasmic NADH is worth 2.5 ATPs in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, matrix OAA is exported to the cytoplasm as _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

aspartate

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67

When a cytoplasmic NADH is worth 2.5 ATPs in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, cytoplasmic OAA is imported into the matrix as reduced _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

malate

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68

When a cytoplasmic NADH is worth 1.5 ATPs, it is first used to reduce _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

DHAP

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69

When a cytoplasmic NADH is worth 1.5 ATPs, electrons are donated to the ETS at the inner membrane by _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

glycerol 3P

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70

In response to active thyroid hormone (T3), the protein _____ is produced to activate non-productive movement protons back through the mitochondrial inner membrane to the matrix.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

UCP1

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71

During thyroid hormone (T3) leakage of protons, the compound _____ is channeled from the matrix to the intermembrane space where it becomes protonated, and returns through the membrane to the matrix to deprotonate.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

butyrate

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72

In response to non-productive movement of protons back through the inner membrane to the matrix, reduced chemiosmosis leads to the production of heat due to increased activation of the _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

ETS

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73

In response to non-productive movement of protons back through the inner membrane to the matrix, reduced chemiosmosis leads to an increase in ____ which signals glucose uptake and activation of PFK1.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

AMP

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74

The rate of chemiosmosis is regulated mainly by the concentration of _____ which represents cytoplasmic energy demand.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

ADP

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75

In response to hyperglycemia, sensitive cells decrease the rate of chemiosmosis by decreased levels of ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

ADP

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76

During hyperglycemia, there is an abnormally large supply of electrons in the ETS, which with low matrix protons leads to the overproduction of _____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

Semiequinoes

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77

Semiquinones most directly activate the production of ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

superoxide

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78

SOD converts superoxide into ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

hydrogen peroxide

New cards
79

The major method of removing hydrogen peroxide within the cell is by reducing it with hydrides donated by a pair of cysteines in the protein ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

peroxiredoxin

New cards
80

Oxidized peroxiredoxin is reduced by ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

thioredoxin

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81

Apoptosis signaling kinase-1 is prevented from forming its activating homodimeric, disulfide-bridged state by the formation of a competing disulfide-bridged heterodimer with ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

thioredoxin

New cards
82

When supplies of reduced thioredoxin levels are lowered by ROS demand on the cell, Ask1 will phosphorylate ____ which unmasks the binding site found on the protein Bim.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

JNK

New cards
83

Phosphorylated Bim removes ____ from the mitochondrial outer membrane leading to Bax-induced apoptosis.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

BCl2

New cards
84

The most potent allosteric activator of PFK1 is _____ which acts to directly tetramerize that enzyme.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

New cards
85

PKA-phosphorylated PFK2 produces the product ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

Fructose 6-phosphate

New cards
86

Insulin-stimulated action of PP1 on PFK2 causes it to produce the product ____.

aspartate

AMP

UCP1

DHAP

ETS

glycerol 3P

butyrate

malate

hydrogen peroxide

Semiequinoes

superoxide

peroxiredoxin

thioredoxin

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate

BCl2

JNK

fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

New cards
87
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: GAPDH</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: GAPDH

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

M

<p>M</p>
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88
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: FAS</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: FAS

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

B

<p>B</p>
New cards
89

Identify in the circle using CAPS: malic enzyme

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

H

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90
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: gluconolactone</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: gluconolactone

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

c.

<p>c.</p>
New cards
91
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: OAA</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: OAA

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

o.

<p>o.</p>
New cards
92
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: pyruvate</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: pyruvate

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

m.

<p>m.</p>
New cards
93
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: ACC</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: ACC

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

G

<p>G</p>
New cards
94
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: elongase</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: elongase

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

F

<p>F</p>
New cards
95
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: desaturase</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: desaturase

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

C

<p>C</p>
New cards
96
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: palmitate</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: palmitate

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

g

<p>g</p>
New cards
97
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: HMGCoA reductase</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: HMGCoA reductase

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

J

<p>J</p>
New cards
98
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: malonylCoA</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: malonylCoA

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

i.

<p>i.</p>
New cards
99
<p>Identify in the circle using CAPS: pyruvate carboxylase</p><p>A</p><p>B</p><p>C</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>G</p><p>H</p><p>I</p><p>J</p><p>K</p><p>M</p><p></p>

Identify in the circle using CAPS: pyruvate carboxylase

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

D

<p>D</p>
New cards
100
<p>Identify in the square box using lower case letters: HMGCoA</p><p>a.</p><p>b.</p><p>c.</p><p>d.</p><p>e.</p><p>f.</p><p>g.</p><p>h.</p><p>i.</p><p>k.</p><p>m.</p><p>n.</p><p>o.</p><p>p.</p><p>r.</p>

Identify in the square box using lower case letters: HMGCoA

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

k.

m.

n.

o.

p.

r.

r.

<p>r.</p>
New cards

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