unit 1 - plate tectonics

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coastline fit

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1

coastline fit

  • close land fit between the coastlines of the continents

  • coastlines fit together like puzzle pieces

  • south america fits really well into africa

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2

geological fit

  • close geological correlation across landmasses

  • shield and non-shield areas align, mountain ranges fit into mountain ranges

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3

paleoclimatology

  • study of past climates show that certain areas had the same climatological history that would only be possible had they been attached/in the same location

  • some of the strongest evidence

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paleoglaciation

  • continental glaciation that correlated between land masses would have been impossible unless these continents were once united

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fossil correlation

  • fossil remains of pre-mesozoic life are uniform and correlate between the southern continents

  • would be impossible for these plants and animals to have crossed the oceans as they are today

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paleomagnetism

  • within ocean basins where molten magma is extruded, there is evidence of plate movement as the magma shows signs of reversal of magnetic polarity over time

  • in the ocean basin, the molten magma is thrusting through the earth, north is true north, but over time true north reverses

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3 types of plate movement

  • diverging, converging, and transforming

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divergent/diverging plate boundaries

  • moving away from each other

  • forms new lithosphere and is the youngest land on earth

  • creates mid-ocean ridges or rift zones (ex. east african rift valley)

  • seafloor spreading can lead to mid-ocean ridges

<ul><li><p>moving away from each other</p></li><li><p>forms new lithosphere and is the youngest land on earth</p></li><li><p>creates mid-ocean ridges or rift zones (ex. east african rift valley)</p></li><li><p>seafloor spreading can lead to mid-ocean ridges</p></li></ul>
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converging plate boundaries

  • moving together

  • when 2 plates are moving towards each other, 1 plate will eventually be pushed down under the other plate due to variations in density

  • 2 continental plates converge: may form mountains

  • continental plate and oceanic plate converge: oceanic plate will subduct and create a trench

  • 2 oceanic plates converge: process is longer, eventually one will begin to descend and be reclaimed by the mantle (may form a string of volcanic islands)

<ul><li><p>moving together</p></li><li><p>when 2 plates are moving towards each other, 1 plate will eventually be pushed down under the other plate due to variations in density</p></li><li><p>2 continental plates converge: may form mountains</p></li><li><p>continental plate and oceanic plate converge: oceanic plate will subduct and create a trench</p></li><li><p>2 oceanic plates converge: process is longer, eventually one will begin to descend and be reclaimed by the mantle (may form a string of volcanic islands)</p></li></ul>
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subduction zone

  • where the lithospheric crust is being pushed under and reclaimed by the mantle (where the oldest rock material is found)

  • occurs when an oceanic and continental plate meet

<ul><li><p>where the lithospheric crust is being pushed under and reclaimed by the mantle (where the oldest rock material is found)</p></li><li><p>occurs when an oceanic and continental plate meet</p></li></ul>
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transforming plate boundaries

  • occurs when 2 plates slide horizontally past each other

  • surface area is neither created or destroyed

  • known as a tear or strike-slip fault

  • great friction between the 2 plates, and if they become locked massive earthquakes can occur when the pressure releases

<ul><li><p>occurs when 2 plates slide horizontally past each other</p></li><li><p>surface area is neither created or destroyed</p></li><li><p>known as a tear or strike-slip fault</p></li><li><p>great friction between the 2 plates, and if they become locked massive earthquakes can occur when the pressure releases</p></li></ul>
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types of faults

  • normal, reverse (compression), strike-slip, horst, graben

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normal fault

  • plates move away from each other

  • one goes up, one goes down

<ul><li><p>plates move away from each other</p></li><li><p>one goes up, one goes down</p></li></ul>
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reverse (compression) fault

  • plates converge, one goes up, one goes down

<ul><li><p>plates converge, one goes up, one goes down</p></li></ul>
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strike-slip fault

  • transform boundary

<ul><li><p>transform boundary</p></li></ul>
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horst fault

  • block mountain, occurs under tension

  • like a horse, you can mount it

<ul><li><p>block mountain, occurs under tension</p></li><li><p>like a horse, you can mount it</p></li></ul>
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graben fault

  • rift valley, also created under tension

  • looks like someone grabbed chunks out of it

<ul><li><p>rift valley, also created under tension</p></li><li><p>looks like someone grabbed chunks out of it</p></li></ul>
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types of rocks

  • sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous

<ul><li><p>sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous</p></li></ul>
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sedimentary rocks

  • formed from layers of sand, silt, dead plants, and animal skeletons, mainly found in watery areas ex. sandstone

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metamorphic rocks

  • formed from other rocks that are changed by heat and pressure underground, found in mountainous regions ex. marble, quartz, slate

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igneous rocks

  • formed from melted rock deep inside the earth, found in volcanic regions ex. gabbro, basalt (in oceanic crust), granite, andesite (continental crust)

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types of volcanoes

  • cinder cone, shield cone, composite cone

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23

cinder cone

  • predominantly found on continents

  • made up of acidic lava

  • made of layers of cinder and ash

  • compact/small in size

  • highly violent and explosive

  • associated with pyroclastic flows

  • fast cooling = can cause clogged neck ex. Mt. Fuji

<ul><li><p>predominantly found on continents</p></li><li><p>made up of acidic lava</p></li><li><p>made of layers of cinder and ash</p></li><li><p>compact/small in size</p></li><li><p>highly violent and explosive</p></li><li><p>associated with pyroclastic flows</p></li><li><p>fast cooling = can cause clogged neck ex. Mt. Fuji</p></li></ul>
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shield cone

  • large and gentle sloping

  • basic lava (basaltic lava) = wet like concrete

  • do not violently erupt, instead ooze -> any accounts of violent eruption tend to be from steam as the lava comes in contact with the water

  • cools very slowly and spreads over large areas

  • predominantly found on ocean floors ex. Hawaiian Islands

<ul><li><p>large and gentle sloping</p></li><li><p>basic lava (basaltic lava) = wet like concrete</p></li><li><p>do not violently erupt, instead ooze -&gt; any accounts of violent eruption tend to be from steam as the lava comes in contact with the water</p></li><li><p>cools very slowly and spreads over large areas</p></li><li><p>predominantly found on ocean floors ex. Hawaiian Islands</p></li></ul>
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25

composite cone

  • most often formed over subduction zones (Pacific Ring of Fire)

  • symmetrical formation with cake-like layers of lava and ash

  • snow and ice-capped

  • more moderately sloped than cinder cones

  • tend to be larger in size

  • sudden and violent eruptions ex. Pacific Ring of Fire

<ul><li><p>most often formed over subduction zones (Pacific Ring of Fire)</p></li><li><p>symmetrical formation with cake-like layers of lava and ash</p></li><li><p>snow and ice-capped</p></li><li><p>more moderately sloped than cinder cones</p></li><li><p>tend to be larger in size</p></li><li><p>sudden and violent eruptions ex. Pacific Ring of Fire</p></li></ul>
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fissure

  • juicy crack

  • more associated w/ oceanic crust and occur when magma flows up through cracks in the crust and "erupts"

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hotspot

  • an area on the earth's mantle where magma rises up to melt through the crust, creating volcanoes or volcanic islands

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types of eruptions

  • lava flows, tephra flows, pyroclastic flows, mudflows

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lava flows

  • pour or ooze out of vents or cracks

  • causes majority of harm to non-moveable objects (trees, cars)

  • basaltic lava can travel vast distances vs. andesite lava that rarely goes past ~8 km.

  • objects and terrain are either surrounded, buried or ignited

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tephra flows

  • made up of cinder and ash (super concentrated)

  • majority of fragments fall back onto the slope, enlarging it

  • alters climate

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pyroclastic flows

  • hot and dry rocks, gases and lava pieces

  • fast-moving and dense <- 200m/s (like an avalanche in this sense)

  • will burn anything in its path

  • considered the most deadly of hazards (another name for the deadly gases and debris is nuees ardentes)

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mudflows

  • same consistency as cement

  • happens when the steam, heat or lava from the volcano melt the snow-capped tops and ice, and that watery runoff mixes with ash, debris and dirt to create a mudflow

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pros of volcanoes

  • creates igneous rocks that can be used as building materials

  • creates fertile soil

  • a source of geothermal energy

  • tourism! (slay)

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cons of volcanoes

  • destructive

  • can cause lots of air pollution b/c of the ash (like Mt. St. Helens)

  • can have many casualties if they erupt aggressively and without fair warning

  • gas will kill you

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35

caldera

  • forms because the magma chamber empties/oozes out so fast that the volcanoes lose their structural integrity

  • also forms because the explosion is so violent that the volcano blows its top off

<ul><li><p>forms because the magma chamber empties/oozes out so fast that the volcanoes lose their structural integrity</p></li><li><p>also forms because the explosion is so violent that the volcano blows its top off</p></li></ul>
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batholith

  • largest feature, looks like a giant pool of magma underground

<ul><li><p>largest feature, looks like a giant pool of magma underground</p></li></ul>
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laccolith

  • 2nd largest feature

  • found between layers

  • usually dome-shaped but smaller

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dike

  • cuts through multiple layers (across)

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sill

  • stuck between layers

  • cuts in between layers

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40

earthquake

  • when stress-deformed rocks break or release pressure by elastic rebound or sudden shift in position and severe shaking of the ground may occur

  • lasts ~10-30 s

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41

wave types

  • body waves and surface waves

  • primary waves, secondary waves, surface waves

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primary wave

  • aka compression wave

  • a type of body wave (much smaller)

  • travels by compressing and expanding the ground

  • the fastest

  • first to reach the earthquake recording stations

<ul><li><p>aka compression wave</p></li><li><p>a type of body wave (much smaller)</p></li><li><p>travels by compressing and expanding the ground</p></li><li><p>the fastest</p></li><li><p>first to reach the earthquake recording stations</p></li></ul>
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43

secondary wave

  • aka shear wave

  • second wave generated by quakes

  • slower than the primary waves and travels in a side-to-side motion

<ul><li><p>aka shear wave</p></li><li><p>second wave generated by quakes</p></li><li><p>slower than the primary waves and travels in a side-to-side motion</p></li></ul>
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surface wave

  • more extreme + aggressive

  • travels like ripples through calm water

  • responsible for ground shaking which causes much of the damage during earthquakes

  • includes love waves (move back + forth) and Rayleigh waves (rolling)

<ul><li><p>more extreme + aggressive</p></li><li><p>travels like ripples through calm water</p></li><li><p>responsible for ground shaking which causes much of the damage during earthquakes</p></li><li><p>includes love waves (move back + forth) and Rayleigh waves (rolling)</p></li></ul>
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aftershocks

  • smaller earthquake that follows a larger earthquake

  • occurs in the same area of the crust/fault

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focus

  • the location where the fracture/shift occurs and the seismic waves originate

  • depth varies but can be as deep as ~700km

<ul><li><p>the location where the fracture/shift occurs and the seismic waves originate</p></li><li><p>depth varies but can be as deep as ~700km</p></li></ul>
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47

epicentre

  • located on the surface of the earth directly above the focus point

<ul><li><p>located on the surface of the earth directly above the focus point</p></li></ul>
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48

tsunami

  • a series of waves caused by the displacement of water from an earthquake

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49

magnitude

  • a measure of the size/amplitude of the seismic waves generated by an earthquake

  • recorded by seismographs

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50

richter scale

  • goes from 1 to 8.9

  • each number is 10x stronger than the previous

  • usually a tremor less than 3 will not be felt

  • a 6.5 and above will cause extensive damage

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