Biology 1020: Zanzot Exam 3

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the key roles of cell division

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the key roles of cell division

the ability of organisms to produce more of their own kind best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter

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reproduction of cells, or cell division

What is the continuity of life based on?

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3

one cell reproduces the entire organism

How do unicellular organisms divide?

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4

development from a fertilized cell, growth, repair

multicellular eukaryotes depend on cell division for what?

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5

genetically identical daughter cells

Most cell division results in what?

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6

meiosis

What is the exception to cell division making genetically identical daughter cells?

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7

meiosis

a special type of division that can produce sperm and egg cells

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8

cellular organization of genetic material

all the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell's genome

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9

chromosomes

What are DNA molecules in a cell packaged into?

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10

a single DNA molecule (prokaryote) or a number of DNA molecules (eukaryote)

What can a genome consist of?

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chromatin

unpacked, more functional form of DNA

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12

chromosme

condensed, and neatly coiled up to travel to new cells

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13

somatic cells

nonproductive cells (2n)

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gametes

reproductive cells; sperm and egg (n)

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n=23

Human # of paired chromosomes

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16

chromosome (labeled)

knowt flashcard image
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17

between # of chromosomes and organism's complexity

What is there no correlation between?

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18

the chromosome of DNA for that new cell

When sister chromatids separate to 2 new nuclei, they become what?

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19

mitosis and cyokinesis

What does Eukaryotic cell division consist of?

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20

mitosis

the division of the genetic material in the nucleus

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cyotkinesis

the division of the cytoplasm

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22

non-identical daughter cells that have half as many chromosomes as the parent cell

Meiosis yields what?

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23

mitotic (M) phase, interphase, cytokinesis

What does the cell cycle consist of?

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24

mitotic (M) phase

mitosis and cytokinesis

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interphase

cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division

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90%

About how much of a cell's life is spent in interphase?

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G1, S, G2

What are the 3 stages of interphase?

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S phase

DNA is replicated

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cleavage furrow

cytokinesis in animal cells

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cell plate

cytokinesis in plant cells

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31

prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea)

Who perform binary fission?

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32

binary fission

the chromosome replicates (beginning Athens the origin of replication), and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart

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33

mitosis

What can prokaryotic cells not undergo?

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34

binary fission

Where do people think mitosis evolved from?

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35

certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary fission and mitosis

Why do people think mitosis evolved from binary fission?

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36

molecular control system

The eukaryotic cell is regulated by what?

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37

the usual controls of the cell cycle

What do cancer cells escape?

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frequency of cell division

What varies with the type of cell?

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39

G1 checkpoint, G2 checkpoint, M checkpoint

What are the three checkpoints of the cell cycle?

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40

the cell cycle control system

the cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm

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41

experiments in which mammalian cells at different phases of the cell cycle were fused to form a single cell with 2 nuclei

What is evidence from to support the hypothesis of the cell cycle control system?

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cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs)

What are the two types of regulatory proteins involved in cell cycle control?

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rises and falls

The activity of a CDK __________ and _________ with changes in the concentration of its cyclin partner

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maturation promoting factor

What does MPF mean?

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45

MPF

a cyclin-CDK complex that triggers a cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into the M phase

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endogenous

cells can receive signals to divide from within the cell

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exogenous

cells can also be signaled to divide by chemical factors outside the cell

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48

growth factors

What are released by certain cells and stimulate other cells to divide?

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platelet derived growth factor

What does PDGF mean?

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50

PDGF

made by blood cell fragments called platelets

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crowded cells will stop dividing

What happens in density-dependent inhibition?

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anchorage dependence

in order to divide, cells must be attached to a substratum

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check the growth of cells at an optimal density

What do density dependent inhibition and anchorage dependence do?

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neither

What type of regulation do cancer cells have?

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55

cancer cells

may not need a growth factor to grow and divide; they make their own growth factor; they may convey a growth factor's signal without the presence of a growth factor; they may have an abnormal cell cycle control system

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transformation

By what process is a normal cell converted to a cancerous cell

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benign tumor

abnormal cells remain at the original site

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malignant tumor

invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form additional tumors

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high energy radiation

What can localized tumors be treated why?

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60

genetics

the scientific study of heredity and variation

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heredity

the transmission of traits from one generation to the next

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variation

demonstrated by differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings

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genes

the units of heredity; made up of segments of DNA

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gametes

genes are passed to the next generation via ___________

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locus

specific location of a gene on a chromosome

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mother

Who do you get your mitochondria from?

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asexual reproduction

a single individual passes genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes

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clone

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sexual reproduction

2 parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the 2 parents

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depends on the way you measure

What is the largest organism in the world?

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somatic cell

any other cell than gamete (body cell)

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23 pairs

How many pairs of chromosomes do somatic cells in humans have?

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homologous chromosomes (homologs)

the 2 chromosomes in each pair

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length; genes

chromosomes in a homologs pair are the same _________ and carry ________ controlling the same inherited characteristics

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karyotype

an ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell

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X and Y

sex chromosomes

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human females

XX

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human males

XY (heterologs)

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autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

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somatic cells

autosomes are NOT

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gametes

sex chromosomes are NOT

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cells

Chromosomes are NOT

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diploid

2 sets of chromosomes (2n)

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haploid

a single set of chromosomes (n)

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23

What is the haploid number for humans?

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86

22 autosomes and a single sex chromosome

Each set of 23 consists of:

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X

In an unfertilized egg (ovum), the sex chromosome is

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X or Y

In a sperm cell, the sex chromosome may be either

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89

fertilization

the union of gametes

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zygote

What is a fertilized egg called?

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91

from each parent

A zygote has one set of chromosomes from _________

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mitosis

Zygote produces somatic cells by ________ and develops into an adult

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meiosis and fertilization (and mitosis)

the 3 main types of sexual life cycles differ in the timing of:

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diploid to haploid

Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from:

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95

2 sets of cell divisions

Meiosis consists of:

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96

4 daughter cells

What does meiosis result in?

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half

The daughter cells in mitosis have ________ as many chromosomes as the parent cell

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98

meiosis I (reductional division)

homologs pair up and separate resulting in 2 haploid daughter cells with replicated chromosomes

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meiosis II (equational division)

sister chromatids separate

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100

comparison of mitosis and meiosis

-mitosis conserves the number of chromosome sets, producing cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell -meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes sets from 2 to 1, producing cells that differ genetically from each other and from the parent cell

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