Practical 4 - nervous system

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What is the CNS?

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1

What is the CNS?

Central nervous system

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2

What is the PNS?

Peripheral nervous system

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3

What does the CNS consist of?

Brain and spinal cord

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4

What does the PNS consist of?

Spinal nerves and cranial nerves (12 pairs)

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5

What is the cerebrum made up of?

Frontal lobes Parietal lobes Temporal lobes Occipital lobes

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6

What is a cerebral hemisphere?

A side of the cerebrum

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7

What is a gyrus?

A ridge in the cerebrum

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8

What is a sulcus?

A groove in the cerebrum

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9

What is the function of the corpus callosum?

It conveys messages between cerebral hemispheres

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10

What is the function of the cerebellum?

Fine control of movement, balance and coordination

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11

What is the brainstem made up of?

Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

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12

What is the function of the brainstem?

It contains centres vital for life

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13

Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?

III to XII

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14

What is CSF?

Cerebrospinal fluid

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15

What is the function of CSF?

It circulates through the CNS to remove metabolic waste from the interstitial fluids of nervous tissues and return them to the bloodstream

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16

Where does CSF circulate?

In the ventricles

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17

Where is CSF produced?

In specialized ependymal cells by the choroid plexus

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18

What is the function of the choroid plexus?

To produce CSF

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19

What are ventricles?

Open spaces where CSF circulates and where it is produced by choroid plexi

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20

What does CSF do after circulating through the ventricles?

It emerges through arachnoid granulations into the subarachnoid space

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21

What is the name of the first two ventricles?

Lateral ventricles

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22

Where are the lateral ventricles?

Deep within the cerebrum

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23

How are the lateral ventricles connected to the 3rd ventricle?

By the interventricular foramen

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24

What is another name for the interventricular foramen?

Foramen of Monro

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25

How are the 3rd and 4th ventricles connected?

By the cerebral aqueduct that passes through the midbrain

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26

What does the cerebral aqueduct pass through?

The midbrain

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27

What is another name for the cerebral aqueduct?

Aqueduct of Sylvius

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28

What is the 4th ventricle?

The space between the cerebellum and the pons/upper medulla

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29

What is the outer surface of the CNS covered by?

Meninges

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30

What are the meninges from superficial to deep?

Dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater

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31

Describe dura mater:

Thick fibrous layer and strong protective sheath over the entire brain and spinal cord Anchored to the inner surface of the cranium and vertebral cavity 2 layers in the brain (endosteal and meningeal) 1 layer in the spinal cord

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32

What is the dura mater?

A thick fibrous layer and strong protective sheath over the entire brain and spinal cord

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33

What is the dura mater anchored to?

The inner surface of the cranium and vertebral cavity

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34

How many layers of dura mater are there in the cranium?

2

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35

How many layers of dura mater are there in the spinal cord?

1

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36

What is the difference between dura mater in the cranium and in the spinal cord?

Consists of 2 layers in the brain and only one in the spinal cord

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37

What are the names of the dura mater layers in the brain?

Endosteal and meningeal layers

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38

Describe arachnoid mater:

Membrane of thin fibrous tissue that forms a loose sac around the CNS between the dura and pia mater In the spinal cord it is held to the dura by CSF (in life)

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39

What is the arachnoid mater?

A membrane of thin fibrous tissue that forms a loose sac around the CNS between the dura and pia mater

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40

How is arachnoid held to the dura in the spinal cord in life?

By CSF

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41

Describe pia mater:

Directly adjacent to the CNS Thin fibrous membrane that follows the convolutions of gyri/sulci in the cerebral cortex and fits into other grooves and indentations

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42

What is pia mater directly adjacent to?

The CNS

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43

What are the spaces in the cranium?

Extra/epidural space Subdural space Subarachnoid space

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44

What are the spaces in the spinal cord?

Extra/epidural space Subdural space Subarachnoid space

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45

Describe the epidural space in the cranium:

Potential space as the dura is adhered to the skull

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46

Describe the subdural space in the cranium:

Potential space between the dura and arachnoid that contains nothing

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47

Describe the subarachnoid space in the cranium:

Space between the arachnoid and pia that contains CSF

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48

What kind of space is the epidural space in the cranium?

Potential space

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49

What kind of space is the subdural space in the cranium?

Potential space

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50

What kind of space is the subarachnoid space in the cranium?

Anatomical space

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51

What does the subdural space in the cranium contain?

Nothing

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52

Why is the epidural space in the cranium and potential space?

Because it is adhered to the skull

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53

What does the subarachnoid space in the cranium contain?

CSF

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54

What is the subdural space between?

Dura and arachnoid

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55

What is the subarachnoid space between?

Arachnoid and pia

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56

Describe the epidural space in the spinal cord:

Anatomical space between dura and ligamentum flavum Contains lymphatics, spinal nerve roots, loose connective tissue, fatty tissue, small arteries and networks of venous plexi Needle inserted here to reduce inflammation/pain from nerve root compressionn

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57

Describe the subdural space in the spinal cord:

Potential space between dura and arachnoid Becomes an anatomical space in death

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58

Describe the subarachnoid space in the spinal cord:

Anatomical space containing CSF between the arachnoid and pia Insert needle here to examine CSF

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59

What kind of space is the epidural space in the spinal cord?

Anatomical space

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60

What kind of space is the subdural space in the spinal cord?

Potential space

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61

What kind of space is the subarachnoid space in the spinal cord?

Anatomical space

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62

What is the epidural space in the spinal cord between?

Dura and ligamentum flavum

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63

What does the epidural space in the spinal cord contain?

Lymphatics Spinal nerve roots Loose connective tissue Fatty tissue Small arteries Network of venous plexi

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64

Why would you insert a needle into the epidural space in the spinal cord?

To reduce inflammation and pain from nerve root compression

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65

What is the difference between the subdural space in life and in death?

It is a potential space in life and an anatomical space in death

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66

What does the subarachnoid space contain?

CSF

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67

Why would you insert a needle into the subarachnoid space in the spinal cord?

To examine CSF

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68

What space would you insert a needle into to examine CSF?

Subarachnoid space in the spinal cord

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69

What space would you insert a needle into to reduce inflammation and pain from nerve root compression?

Epidural space in the spinal cord

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70

What is the difference between the epidural space in the cranium and in the spinal cord?

It is a potential space in the cranium and an anatomical space in the spinal cord

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71

Why is the epidural space a potential space in the cranium but an anatomical space in the spinal cord?

In the cranium the dura is adhered to the skull so there can be no space but in the spinal cord there is no bone to adhere to

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72

Where does the spinal cord start?

At the foramen magnum, after the medulla oblongata

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73

What does the spinal cord pass through?

The vertebral canal

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74

What is the spinal cord a continuation of?

The medulla oblongata/brainstem

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75

Where does the spinal cord end in adults?

L1/L2

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76

What forms because the vertebral column continues to grow after L1/L2?

The cauda equina

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77

What is the cauda equina?

A set of hanging fibres outside the spinal cord

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78

Why does the cauda equina form?

Because the spinal cord ends at L1/L2 but the vertebral column keeps growing

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79

What kind of joints are intervertebral discs?

Secondary cartilaginous (symphysis)

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80

Describe the structure of intervertebral discs:

Nucleus pulposus in the centre, surrounded by the annulus fibrosus

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81

What is more central, nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus?

Nucleus pulposus

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82

What do erector spinae muscles lie posterior to?

Transverse processes

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83

What do erector spinae muscles extend?

The spinal column

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84

What do spinal nerves exit via?

Intervertebral foramina

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85

What passes through intervertebral foramina?

Spinal nerves

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86

What is the nervous system divided into?

Autonomic and somatic

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87

What is the ANS?

Autonomic nervous system

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88

What is the SNS?

Somatic nervous system

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89

What is the ANS made up of?

Motor/visceral efferents (sympathetic and parasympathetic) Sensory/visceral afferents

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90

What is the SNS made up of?

Motor/somatic efferents Sensory/somatic afferents

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91

What is the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic neurone pathways?

The sympathetic pathway has a much longer postganglionic fibre

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92

What is a myotome?

A group of muscles innervated by a single spinal nerve root

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93

What is a dermatome?

A strip of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve root

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94

What is the name for a strip of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve root?

Dermatome

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95

What is the name for a group of muscles innervated by a single spinal nerve root?

Myotome

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96

What is the dermatome for the nipples?

T4

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97

What is the dermatome for the umbilicus?

T10

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98

What is the dermatome for the thumb?

C6

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99

What is the dermatome for the front of the knee?

L3

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100

What is the dermatome for referred diaphragmatic pain?

C3/C4

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