ASI 350-Meat Microbio

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where in the industry are drug residues the most common?

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1

where in the industry are drug residues the most common?

dairy

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2

does meat microbio include Beef Quality Assurance (BQA), drug residues, and chemical/product contaminations?

no

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3

is BSE (mad cow disease) a major concern in the US?

no

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4

____________ of dollars are spent annually to insure food safety?

billions

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5

how many food borne illness cases in the US are there in a year?

-more than 80 mil

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6

-about 1 in 6

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7

in a year, about how many deaths are there in the US due to food borne illnesses?

5000

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8

most common food borne illness?

norovirus (viral)

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9

most dangerous food borne illness?

salmonella

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10

food borne illness that causes the most hospitalizations?

norovirus

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11

is all meat sterile (or microbe free)?

yes

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12

where do spoilage/safety concerns come in?

contamination

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13

what are the two places where contamination comes in?

-kill floor

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14

will all raw meat make you sick?

NO

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15

what percent of ground beef is contaminated with e. coli?

<.5%

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16

what percent of ground beef is contaminated with salmonella?

around 1.5%

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17

what percent of raw chicken (or poultry in general) is contaminated with salmonella?

around 8.3%

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18

what percent of raw chicken is contaminated with campylobacter?

around 33%

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19

how does cooking meat to 160F make it safe to eat?

denatures proteins in bacteria

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20

what are most food borne illnesses caused by? (six causes)

-improper cooking

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21

acute symptoms of foodborne-illnesses (four)

-nausea

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22

long term effects of foodborne-illnesses (three)

-kidney failure

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23

what foodborne illness can cause kidney failure?

e. coli

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24

what foodborne illness can cause chronic arthritis?

salmonella

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25

vulnerable populations (five)

-children

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26

-sick

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27

what caused the formation of HAACP?

1994- 8 children died due to eating uncooked hamburgers at Jack-in-the-box

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28

no matter the microbial load, proper cooking will make it _______ to eat

safe

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29

what temp should fresh meats reach to be considered safe?

140F

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30

what temp should ground beef reach to be considered safe?

160F

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31

what temp should poultry reach to be considered safe?

165F

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32

what should consumers use to verify cooking temperatures?

food thermometer

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33

pathogenic mo's

cause disease

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34

spoilage mo's

shorten shelf life, do NOT cause disease

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35

most common spoilage mo

pseudomounus spp

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36

viruses

not living, need a carrier ( like meat)

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37

do viruses contribute to spoilage?

no

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38

parasites

usually occur in live animals, meat is the secondary carrier

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39

fungi

molds-multicellular

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40

yeasts

unicellular, form buds during division

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41

what product is yeast most common in?

brine solutions

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42

bacteria

pathogenic, spoilage

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43

most important microorganism

bacteria

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44

are bacteria multi or uni cellular?

unicellular

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45

are all bacteria the same?

no-vary in shape and color

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46

what phase of growth are spoilage bacteria prevalent?

log phase

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47

spoilage bacteria examples (four)

-pseudomonas

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48

intoxication

toxin is responsible for causing disease when ingested

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49

enterotoxin

affects cells of intestinal wall lining

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50

what do toxins do to cause diarrhea?

destroy intestinal villi

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51

-"make your intestinal tract a speedway for food"

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52

exotoxin

-outside bacterial cell

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53

endotoxin

-less specific

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54

toxin mediated

toxin is produced by mo after mo is ingested

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55

infection

organism is ingested by host, presence disrupts normal function

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56

is meat an ideal microbial culture medium?

yes

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57

what makes an ideal microbial culture?

-high in moisture

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58

preferred growth temp of psychrophiles

cold, <50F

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59

preferred growth temp of thermophiles

hot, >113F

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60

preferred growth temp of mesophiles

mid range, 50-113F

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61

most spoilage microorganisms

psychrothophs

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62

most important pathogens

mesophilic

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63

temperature danger zone

40-140F

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64

bacteria require oxygen to grow; most bacteria, yeasts, molds

aerobic

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65

bacteria that require the absence of oxygen to grow

Anaerobic

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66

bacteria that can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen

facultative

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67

bacteria can grow in very small amounts of oxygen

Microaerophilic

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68

spoilage detection in meat

10^8

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69

what temp do bacteria prefer?

neutral (7.0)

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70

what meat ph favors bacterial growth?

5.6

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71

what meat ph prevents pathogen growth

<4.6

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72

_______have the least surface area

carcasses

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73

________have more surface area

cuts

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74

_______have the most surface area

ground product

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75

bacteria responsible for the Jack-in-the-Box outbreak in 1994

E coli

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76

E. coli produces ___________

shiga toxins

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77

kidney failure

hemolytic colitis

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78

are all E. coli strains pathogenic?

no

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79

are E. coli gram positive or negative?

negative-cell membrane and wall

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80

how many different species of salmonella are there?

1200

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81

is salmonella gram positive or negative?

negative-cell membrane and wall

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82

salmonella produces _______ and is an _____

spores, endotoxin

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83

major difference in campylobacter jejuni and salmonella

salmonella is spore forming

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84

clostridium

-spore forming

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85

-rod shaped

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86

-gram positive

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87

is clostridium perfringens anaerobic or aerobic?

anaerobic, resistant to drying and heating

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88

what is clostridium perfringens commonly associated with?

cafeteria/buffets

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89

which bacteria produces the most deadly toxin in the world?

clostridium botulinum

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90

what causes transmissable spongiform encephalopathy?

prions-misfolded infectious proteins

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91

transmissable spongiform encephalopathy in beef

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse)

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92

transmissable spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

scrapie

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93

transmissable spongiform encephalopathy in deer

chronic wasting disease

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94

transmissable spongiform encephalopathy in humans

variant creutzfeldt-jakob, kuru

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95

transmissable spongiform encephalopathy in mink

transmissible mink encephalopathy

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96

trichinella spiralis

parasite historically found in pork

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97

what once caused trichinella spiralis

feeding pigs poor quality feed

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98

what are most cases of trichinosis today associated with?

wild game (bear) meat

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99

cleaning procedures and records

sanitation standard operating procedures (ssops)

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100

operating and environmental conditions needed to protect food products

good manufacturing practices (gmp)

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