Anatomy Lab exam 3

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neuroglia cells

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141 Terms

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neuroglia cells

supportive cells non-conducting

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neuroglia in CNS

Astrocytes microglia ependymal cells oligodendrocytes

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neuroglia in PNS

Satellite cells Schwann cells

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astrocytes

blood brain barrier guide neuron pathways

<p>blood brain barrier guide neuron pathways</p>
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Microglia

modified white blood cell phagocytosis "Pruning" -old nerve fibers to make room for new ones

<p>modified white blood cell phagocytosis &quot;Pruning&quot; -old nerve fibers to make room for new ones</p>
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ependymal cells

ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -cavities in brain

<p>ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -cavities in brain</p>
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oligodendrocytes

produce myelin in CNS formed from extensions from cell

<p>produce myelin in CNS formed from extensions from cell</p>
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Satellite

protects cell body (1)

<p>protects cell body (1)</p>
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Schwann Cells

makes myelin in PNS (2)

<p>makes myelin in PNS (2)</p>
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Neurons

Functional Unit Conducting Cells least numerous

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Grey matter CNS

Nucleus (group of cell wipes)

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Grey matter PNS

Ganglion (group of cell bodies)

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White matter in CNS

tract (group of axons)

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White matter in PNS

nerve (groups of axons)

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Afferent/ sensory

to CNS

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Efferent/ motor

from CNs

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interneuron

between sensory and motor

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multipolar neuron

most common multiple dendrites one axon

<p>most common multiple dendrites one axon</p>
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Bipolar

one dendrite one axon special senses

<p>one dendrite one axon special senses</p>
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unipolar

one projection from cell body splits -central -to CNS -peripheral -away from CNS

<p>one projection from cell body splits -central -to CNS -peripheral -away from CNS</p>
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fascicles

multiple endoneurium (3)

<p>multiple endoneurium (3)</p>
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endoneurium

wrap around fiber (1)

<p>wrap around fiber (1)</p>
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perineurium

around fascicles (2)

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epineurium

around whole thing (4)

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constrictions divide neural tube

forebrain midbrain hindbrain

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central canal (embryonic development)

cavity in center of neural tube ventricles

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secondary vesicles (embryonic development)

week 5 5 regions

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prosencephalon (forebrain) turns into

telencephalon and diencephalon

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mesencephalon (midbrain) turns into

mesencephalon (brain stem: midbrain) cerebral aqueduct

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rhombencephalon (hindbrain) turns into

metencephalon and myelencephalon

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telencephalon is

cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei) lateral ventricles

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diencephalon is

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, retina third ventricles

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metencephalon is

brain step: Pons cerebellum fourth ventricle

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myelencephalon is

brain stem: medulla oblongata fourth ventricle

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Gyrus

1

<p>1</p>
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sulcus

2

<p>2</p>
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fissure

3

<p>3</p>
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Thalamus

sensory relay

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hypothalamus

endocrine system autonomic system rage/ aggression hunger/ thirst basal instincts

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epithalamus

pineal body/ gland (melatonin)

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midbrain

corpora quadrigemina -superior colliculi (visual- move head and neck to visual stimuli) -inferior colliculi (auditory- move head and neck to auditory stimuli)

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Pons

relay sensory and motor tracts

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medulla oblongata

cardiovascular and respiratory centers

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Cerebellum

posterior aspect "little brain" coordination fine motor skills

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Cerebellum- vermis

middle part

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cerebellum- arbor vitae

"tree of life" branches inside cerebellum

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frontal lobe

voluntary motor two lobes because two hemispheres covered by frontal bone

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parietal lobes

somatosensory -pain, pressure, tickle

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temporal lobes

auditory

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occipital lobes

vision

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longitudinal fissure

front to back (anterior to posterior)

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central sulcus

left to right on top -separates frontal from parietal

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precentral gyrus

frontal lobe -gyrus anterior (infront) to central sulcus

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postcentral gyrus

parietal lobe -gyrus posterior (behind) central sulcus

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corpus collosum

arch abone the thalamus and hypothalamus

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Auricle

external ear lobe

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external acoustic meatus

external ear auditory canal

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tympanic membrane

external ear ear drum (high-low frequencies)

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malleus

middle ear hammer

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incus

middle ear anvil

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stapes

middle ear Sturrup

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pharyngotympanic tube

eustachian tube

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round window

near stapes

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oval window

near malleus

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cochlea

inner ear (bony labyrinth) snail shell shaped extends from vestibule basilar membrane -floor of cochlea duct -support spiral organ cochlear branch of nerve VIII runs from spiral organ to brain

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three chambers of cochlea

scala vestibule cochlear duct scala tympani

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scala vestibule

abuts oval window contains perilymph

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scala media (Cochlear duct)

contains endolymph

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scala tympani

terminates at round window contains perilymph

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inner ear

cochlear duct utricle saccule semicircular ducts CN VIII vestibulocochlear

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equilibrium

reponse to various movements of head rely on unput from inner ear, eyes, and stretch receptors

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vestibular apparatus

equilibrium receptors in semicircular canals and vestibule

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vestibular receptors

static equilibrium (not moving)

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semicircular canal receptors

dynamic equilibrium (moving)

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eyelid

thin skin covered fold protect anterior eye

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eyebrow

over lie supraorbital margins shade eye from sunlight

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lacrimal gland

lacrimal gland, canal, sac drains into nose (causes you to blow your nose when crying)

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nasolacrimal duct

tears

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conju

transparent mucous membrane produces a lubricating mucous secretion covers exposed surface of eye -minus cornea conjunctivitis (pink eye)

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sclera

opaque posterior region (white part) protects and shapes eyeball anchors extrinsic eye muscle posteriorly where optic nerve exits, sclera is continuous with dura mater of brain

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cornea

transparent part of fibrous layer anterior 1/6th clear window lets light enter bends light numerous pain receptors -blinking and tearing reflexes

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choroid

posterior portions supplies blood to all layers of eyeball brown pigment absorbs light to prevent scattering of light

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ciliary process

capillaries secrete fluid for anterior segment of eyeball

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ciliary muscles

smooth muscle bundles that control shape of lense i

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iris

colored part of eye lies between cornea and lens continuous with ciliary body

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pupil

central opening that regulates amount of light entering eye

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pigmented layer of retina

single-cell-thick lining next to choroid covers ciliary body and iris functions: absorbs light and prevents its scattering

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neural layer of retina

transparent runs anteriorly to margin of ciliary body

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rods

dim light, peripheral vision receptors more numerous and more sensitive to light than cores no color vision or sharp images numbers greatest at periphery

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cones

vision receptors for bright light high-resolution color visions

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lens

biconvex transparent flexible avascular changes shape to precisely focus light on retina

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anterior segment

divided by iris

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anterior chamber

between cornea and iris

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posterior chamber

between iris and lens

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aqueous humor

plasma like fluid continuously formed by capillaries of ciliary processes

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posterior segment

contains vitreous humor -transmits light -supports posterior surface of lens -holds retina firmly against wall

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frontal lobe

two lobes because two hemispheres voluntary motor

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parietal lobes

somatosensory -pain, pressure, tickle

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temporal lobes

auditory

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occipital lobe

vision

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