Hist 103 Final

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347 Terms

1

node

decision points

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contingency

the notion that future events are dependent on passed ones but not determined or predicted

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3

Teleology

the belief that some process unfolds toward a predetermined goal, divinely ordained or just destined

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4

Scale

how big/how small

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5

Big Bang time

13.7 bya

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big bang

small infinitely dense then rapidly expands, still expanding today

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7

10^43 seconds

Planck time, universe is smaller than Planck length, nothing before this, gravity appears

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8

10^-35

inflation begins, energy and matter are interchangeable, e = mc^2, gravity, strong nuclear force, quark soup

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9

10^-6

temp fell to 1 trillion K, quarks stable enough to bond

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10

1 second- 2 minutes

1 electron per proton, 1 billion K, nuclei formed

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11

380,000 years after big bang

temp fell to around 3,000 K, threshold, end of radiation era, neutral atoms with electron orbits, gravity

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12

Hubble constant

rate of universe expansion seen through red shift

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13

cosmic background radiation

radiation left over from the big bang

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14

makeup of universe after big bang

about 75% hydrogen, 25% helium, similar today

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15

Lord Brahma

hindu origin story, creator of universe

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16

contingency in big bang

tiny imbalance of matter and antimatter, slightly more matter, that's why we're here. Proof is CBR unevenly distributed.

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17

200 million years after Big Bang

"Dark Age" universe cools and expands, matter clumps

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18

at 200 million years after Big Bang

stars and galaxies begin to form. hydrogen and helium

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19

Milky Way age

13 billion years

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20

Msolar system distance from center of galaxy

26,000 light years

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21

Nebular Hypothesis

swirling massive clouds of dust, gravity pulls into center, sun ignited and remaining stuff is planets

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22

Earth special

wwater, tectonic activity, size, distance from sun, MOON

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23

Theia

4.5 bya earth and companion planet collided, became molten, became earth and moon

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24

moon benefits

slow down earth's spin, regulates tides, keeps axis stable

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25

Hadeon Era

4.6-4.0 bya, after theia, lots of asteroids, crust began to harden, cooled to 3000 degrees, black sphere with cracks of lava, red sky, rained for millions of years to make oceans

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26

both shape history

contingent and deterministic events

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27

Anthropic Principle

we live on an Earth designed for life

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28

Strong Anthropic Principle

The circumstances in our universe have made the emergence of life inevitable, perhaps because the universe way designed that way

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29

Weak Anthropic Principle

The universe just happens to be this was, and if it were any different we wouldn't observe it

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30

what is life

organized cellular structure, reproduces, store info (genetics), metabolism, composed of organic things

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31

steps of life emergence

  1. building blocks: amino acids, sugars, lipids form 2. come together to make macromolecules 3. molecular selection, symmetrical efficient bonds (RNA/DNA) 4. Replication

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32

Complex adaptive systems

interact and adapt with their environments to survive, determinism and contingency

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33

Life made of?

lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids

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34

RNA world hypothesis

RNA formed first (genes first), primordial soup and acted like proteins and replicated

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35

Iron-sulfide world hypothesis

metabolism came first

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36

Panspermia

life originiated somewhere else and was delivered to Earth through meteors

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37

3.5 bya

first life: prokaryotes

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38

2.5 bya

Great Oxygenation Event, photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, contingent event

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1.9 bya

first Eukaryotic cell, one prokaryote absorbed another, "Last Common Ancestor"

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40

Dark matter

matter that does not give off electromagnetic radiation, 90% of universe

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41

sun/solar system age

4.56 billion years old, will live for 4-5 billion more years

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42

T Tauri Wind

100,000 years after sun's formation, blasted away remaining gas and dust in inner orbits and young earth atmosphere

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43

evidence for early earth

seismograph, relative dating, radiometric dating, meteorites

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44

Uniformitarianism

geologic processes happened over huge periods of time, deep time

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45

Archean Era

3.8 bya, continental crust, seas, carbon dioxide atmosphere, Pangaea, age of bacteria

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46

synestias

impact-generates hybrid between planet and disk

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47

cladogram

shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms, how long ago that had a common ancestor

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48

natural selection

determines how evolution functions

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49

struggle for existence

scarcity of food, competition among species

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50

allopatric speciation

populations get separated and eventually grow into separate populations with different features and genetics, evolution happens quicker in small group

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51

Bottleneck events

The Great Oxygenation Event, Snowball Earth

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52

Snowball Earth

700 mya, during breakup of Rodenia, produced massive ice age

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53

Ediacaran Era time

560-540mya

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54

Ediacaran importance

first multicellular life

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55

Path dependency

the idea that certain possibilities are made more or less likely because of the historical path taken

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56

Path dependency examples

bilateral symmetry, varnanimalcula

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57

540 mya

Cambrian explosion, marin life

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58

50 mya

all animal groups that live now were there

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59

Arthropods

segmentation, same body plan, trilobites

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60

niche

particular way of living for an organism that seems to have been adapted or sculpted by evolutionary processes

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61

taxonomy

biological classification

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62

acquired traits

occur in a life time, a buff guy won't have a buff kid

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63

Phanerozoic Eon

last 600 ma, all of Earth's history

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64

Carboniferous Period

300 mya, highest oxygen concentration, dinosaurs came about

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65

Random walk

a stochastic or random process describing a path consisting of random steps through some mathematical space (integers), memory of previous steps

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66

Just because there is a trend...

does not mean its destined

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67

Evolution trends

greater size, complexity because it was the only way to go

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68

stochastic

random, unpredictable

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69

Big 5 extinctions

End-ordovician, devonian, permian, triassic, cretaceous

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Importance of extinctions

Leads to new opportunities for the survivors, new niches, rapid genetic evolution, bottleneck effects

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extinctions causes

climate change, change in sea level, plate tectonics

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72

1st extinction

end ordovician, 425 mya, led to colonization of land, planets first, first land animal (arthropods)

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2nd extinction

end Devonian, synapses diversified, pelycosaurs, therapsids (mammal-like reptiles)

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74

3rd extinction

permian, only synapses to survive were mammals, biggest, caused by global warming and volcanoes, no more large vertebrates

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75

Triassic

After permian, new body plans, dinosaurs rose, bipedalism, Cambrian explosion like

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76

4th extinction

50 mya, maybe asteroid, higher CO2, killed off Dinosaur competitiors

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77

Jurassic

age of dinosaurs, mammals are small foragers, flight evolved

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78

5th extinction

65 million years ago, huge asteroid impact, changed earth completely, ended Dinos, sunlight blocked for year

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79

Catastrophism

geological changes have taken shape through sudden and dramatic catastrophes, such as major volcanic events, floods, and earthquakes. Explains why the fossil record has sudden extinctions.

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80

punctuated equilibrium

Pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change

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81

large scales vs. small

large: more stochastic, small: more deterministic

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82

true symbiosis

one or both partners can no longer survive without the other

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83

mammals first appeared

triassic

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84

Gaia

Living organisms constitutes a single earth-wide system, Huge self regulating superorganism, keeping earth's conditions good for life

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85

patter of species

migration, innovation, growth, overexploitation, decline, stabilization

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86

Kt Boundary

Time of mass extinction of dinosaurs

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87

Lucy

bipedal hominine, 3.2 mya, 40% fossil

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88

mammal

milk, three middle ear bones, neocortex in the brain

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89

Morganucodon

First true mammal, protected brain, strong jaw, faster digestion and metabolism, replacing teeth, more upright posture, flexible

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90

Therian mammal

primates, placentals, marsupials

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91

KT event name

K/Pg event

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92

Micocene

23 mya, diversification of carnivores, temp drop

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93

last common ancestor of humans and chimps date

6-7 mya

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94

amount of DNA shared with chimps

98.4%

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95

contingent event in human and chimps

human ancestor had mutation where two chromosomes fused

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96

East African Rift Valley

birthplace of humanity, 6-4.5 mya

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97

advantages of bipedalism

Free hands, heat regulation, efficient over distance, see further

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98

Australopithecus anamensis

4.2 - 3.8 mya The oldest species of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to A. afarensis.

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99

Australopithecines

walked upright, primitive stone tools, ate meat without first, omnivore, bipedal

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100

what separates human

internal life, recognize thoughts and feelings of others, others have internal life

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