Chapter 2 Human and anatomy and physiology

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154 Terms

1

Mass

The amount of matter in an object, typically measured in grams or kilograms.

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2

Atoms

The basic units of a chemical element, consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons

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3

Subatomic particles

Particles that are smaller than an atom, including protons, neutrons, and electrons.

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4

Protons

Positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom

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5

Atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

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6

Mass number

The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.

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7

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.

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8

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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9

Inert

Not chemically reactive.

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10

Inert gases

Gases that do not readily react with other substances.

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11

Reactive

Chemically active; likely to undergo a chemical change

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12

Cation

A positively charged ion

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13

Anion

A negatively charged ion

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14

Chemical bonds

The force of attraction that holds atoms or ions together

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15

Compound

A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.

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16

Ionic bonds

Bonds formed when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom.

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17

Covalent bonds

Bonds formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

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18

Nonpolar molecules

Molecules in which the electron sharing produces no localized positive and negative regions

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19

Single covalent bond

A bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons

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20

Double covalent bond

A bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

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21

Polar molecule

A molecule with a net dipole as a result of opposing charges.

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22

Polar covalent bonds

A type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally between atoms.

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23

Hydrogen bond

A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction.

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24

Chemical notation

A system of symbols and notation conventions used to represent chemical reactions

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25

Formula

A way of expressing information symbolically.

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26

Balanced equation

A chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.

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27

Activation energy

The minimum quantity of energy that a reactant must possess to undergo a specific reaction.

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28

Enzymes

Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions.

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29

Catalysts

Substances that increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process.

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30

Metabolic pathway

A series of chemical reactions in a cell.

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31

Exergonic

Reactions that release energy.

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32

Decomposition

A type of chemical reaction in which one reactant breaks down into two or more products.

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33

Hydrolysis

A chemical in which water is used to break down a compound.

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34

Catabolism

The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones

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35

Dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules are joined together with the removal of a water molecule.

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36

Anabolism

The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones.

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37

Equilibrium

A state in which the forward and reverse reactions balance each other out.

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38

Exchange reaction

A type of chemical reaction in which parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled to produce new combinations.

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39

Ionization

The process by which an atom or molecule acquires a positive or negative charge by gaining or losing electrons.

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40

Electrolytes

Substances that disassociate into ions in solution and have the ability to conduct electricity.

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41

Dissociation

The breaking apart of a compound into its individual ions in solution.

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42

Hydration sphere

The cluster of water molecules that surrounds an ion in a solution.

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43

Colloid

A mixture in which one substance is divided into minute particles and dispersed throughout a second substance.

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44

Suspension

A mixture in which particles are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but settle out over time

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45

Hydrophilic

Having an affinity for water; water-loving.

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46

Hydrophobic:

Lacking an affinity for water; water-fearing.

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47

Hydrogen ion (H+)

A positively charged ion formed of a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron.

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48

Hydroxide ion (OH-)

A negatively charged ion made of one oxygen atom bonded to one hydrogen atom.

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49

pH

A measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution.

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50

Acidosis

A condition in which the blood's pH is below 7.35

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51

Alkalosis

A condition in which the blood's pH is above 7.45.

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52

Acidic

Having a pH less than 7.

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53

Neutral

Having a pH of 7

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54

Basic

Having a pH greater than 7.

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55

Alkaline

Another term for basic; having a pH greater than 7

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56

Hydrochloric acid

A strong acid commonly found in the stomach

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57

Base

A substance that can accept a proton (H+) from another substance.

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58

Sodium hydroxide

A strong base used in various industrial applications

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59

Carbonic acid

A weak acid formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.

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60

Bicarbonate ion

An ion that acts as a buffer in the blood, helping to maintain a stable pH

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61

Salt

A compound formed when an acid reacts with a base

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62

Buffers

Compounds that prevent drastic changes in internal pH by removing or releasing hydrogen ions (H+).

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Buffers

Substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution, thus stabilizing the pH

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64

Carbohydrate

Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, typically in a 1:2:1 ratio; serve as a primary source of energy for organisms.

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Monosaccharide

The simplest form of carbohydrates, e.g., glucose and fructose.

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66

Glucose

A monosaccharide sugar that's an important energy source in living organisms.

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67

Fructose

A monosaccharide found in fruits and honey

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68

Disaccharide

A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides, e.g., sucrose.

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69

Polysaccharides

Long-chain carbohydrates, e.g., starches and glycogen.

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70

Glycogen

A multi-branched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals.

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71

Lipids

Organic compounds that are fatty acids or derivatives; insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

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Fatty acids

Building blocks of lipids.

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Carboxyl group

A functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a carbon atom bonded to an oxygen atom by a double bond and to a hydroxyl group.

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74

Saturated fatty acid

Fatty acid chains that have all single bonds between carbons; solid at room temperature.

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Unsaturated fatty acid:

Fatty acid chains that have one or more double bonds; liquid at room temperature.

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Glycerol:

A simple polyol compound; a backbone for triglycerides and phospholipids

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Fats

Lipids that are solid at room temperature

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78

Monoglyceride

A glycerol molecule with one fatty acid attached

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79

Diglyceride

A glycerol molecule with two fatty acids attached

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80

Triglyceride

A glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached

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81

Structural lipids

Lipids that are components of cell membranes or play specific roles in cellular function.

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82

Steroids

A type of lipid molecule with a characteristic structure of four rings; includes hormones and cholesterol.

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83

Cholesterol:

A sterol lipid that's a key component in cell membranes and a precursor for various hormones.:

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84

Phospholipids

Lipids containing a phosphate group; a major component of cell membranes..

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85

Glycolipids

Lipids with a carbohydrate attached; important for cell recognition.

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86

Proteins

Large molecules composed of amino acid chains; serve a variety of functions including structural, enzymatic, and transport roles.

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87

Amino acids

Building blocks of proteins.

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88

Peptide bond

The chemical bond that forms between amino acids.

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89

Peptide

A short chain of amino acids.

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90

Dipeptides

Two amino acids linked by a peptide bond.

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91

Polypeptides

Long chains of amino acids.

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92

Primary structure

The sequence of amino acids in a protein.

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93

Secondary structure

The localized folding or coiling of the polypeptide chain due to hydrogen bonding.

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94

Tertiary structure

The overall three-dimensional shape of a protein due to interactions among its side chains.

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95

Quaternary structure

The arrangement of multiple protein subunits.

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96

Hemoglobin

A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.

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97

Keratin

A protein found in hair, nails, and the outer layer of skin.

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98

Collagen

The main structural protein in connective tissues.

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99

Denaturation

A process where a protein loses its native shape due to environmental changes.

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100

Enzymes

Proteins that act as biological catalysts, speeding up reactions without being consumed.

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