Psych 201 Chapters 1-3

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Psychology

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Psychology

131 Terms

1

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes

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2

The definition of Psychology reflects what?

The origins and history of Psychology

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3

What are the goals of Psychology

Describe, Predict, explain, and control

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4

Aristotle

Sleeping and Dreaming

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5

Descartes

Separation of mind and body; Laid the groundwork for nature v. nurture

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6

Wilhelm Wundt

The Founder of Psychology

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7

Structuralism

Titchener; Study of basic components of conscious experiences; Focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes

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8

Functionalism

William James; Emphasized study of the purpose or function of behavior and mental experiences (Consciousness)

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9

Sigmund Freud

Emphasized the role of unconscious behavior; Psychoanalysis

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10

Behaviorism

Emphasized the study of observable behaviors

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11

Ivan Pavlov

Clasical Conditioning; Dog experiement; Behaviorism

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12

John Watson

Behaviorism; How behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influences

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13

B.F. Skinner

Behaviorism; Operate Conditioning; Behavior and its consequences

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14

Carl Rogers

Humanistic; Emphasized persons conscious experiences, potential for psychological growth, importance of choice in human behavior

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15

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic; Importance of psychological growth; Theory of Motivation

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16

Nature vs Nurture

Is it genetic or learned behavior

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17

Major steps of the Scientific Method

Formulate

Design

Analyze

Report

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18

Empirical Evidence

Tried and True; its been test and the outcome is repeatedly the same

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19

Clinical Psychology

Focuses on the Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of psycological disorders

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20

Descriptive Research

Focuses on the who, what, when, where; Notes only; Naturalistic Observation, Case Studies, Surveys

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Sample

Selected segment of the population used to represent the group being studied

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Representative Sample

A sample that closely parallels the population being studied on relative characteristics; WEIRD

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Random Selection

Subjects are randomly selected from a large group; equal chance of being selected

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Positive Correlation

The two factors go in the same direction

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25

Negative Correlation

The two factors go in opposite directions

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26

Correlation does not equal………

CAUSATION

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27

Experimental Research

Experiements

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28

Independent Variable

factor that is manipulated to change an experiment

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Dependent Variable

Factor that is observed/measured for change

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30

Confounding Variables

Variables that are not the focus of an experiment but can affect the outcome

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31

Biological Science

Scietific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental Processes

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32

Neuroscience

Scientific study of the nervous system

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33

Central Nervous System

Brain and Spine

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34

Peripheral Nervous System

Everything Else

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35

Somatic Nervous System

Voluntary Movements; In Peripheral Nervous System

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36

Autonomic Nervous System

Involuntary Movements; In Peripheral Nervous System

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37

Sympathetic Nervous System

Fight or Flight

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38

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Calms you down

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39

Sensory Neurons

Go from your body to your brain

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40

Motor Neurons

Go from your Brain to your body

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41

Neuron

What transmits information in the nervous system

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42

Interneuron

Communicates information between neurons

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Basic Components of a Neuron

Cell body (Soma): Nucleus, Chromosomes

Dendrites

Axon

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Action Potential

The moment it fires

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Stimulus Threshold

minimum level of stimulation required to activate a neuron

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46

Resting Potential

Ready to be fired

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47

Synapse

A communication point between the two neurons separated by the synaptic gap

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48

Synaptic Gap

Fluid gap

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49

Reuptake process

Recycle

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50

Presynaptic Neuron

Sending

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51

Postsynaptic Neuron

Recieving

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52

Acetylcholine

Learning, Memory, Muscle Contractions

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53

Dopamine

Movement, thought process, rewarding sensations

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54

Serotonin

Emotional States, Sleep, Sensory Perception

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55

Norepinephrine

Physical Arousal, learning, memory, Regulation of Sleep

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Glutamate

Excitatory Messages

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GABA

Inhibitory messages

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Endorphins

Pain Perception, Positive Emotions

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The Endocrine System

Gland located throughout the body and uses hormones to transmit information through the bloodstream

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60

Pineal Gland (Endocrine System)

In the Brain; Produces melatonin

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61

Hypothalamus (Endocrine System)

In the Brain; Controls the pituitary gland; links nervous and endocrine systems

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Pituitary Glands (Endocrine System)

In the brain near the ear; Regulates activities of other glands; produces growth hormone, prolactin, and oxytocin

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Thyroid Gland (Endocrine System)

In the throat; Controls body metabolism rate

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Adrenal Glands

Behind the pancreas and kidneys; produces adrenaline and norepinephrine; involved in fight or flight response

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Pancreas (Endocrine System)

In front the Kidneys; Regulates blood sugar and insulin levels

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Ovaries (Endocrine System)

Female; Secrete estrogen and progesterone; regulate female sexual development, reproduction, and behavior

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Testes (Endocrine System)

Male; secrete testosterone; regulates male sexual development, reproduction, and behavior

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Neuroplasticity

The brain can change

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Functional Plasticity

Brains ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas

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70

Structural plasticity

Ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences

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71

Brainstem

Region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain

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Hindbrain

Region at the base of the brain that contains structures that regulate basic life functions; connects brain to spinal chord; Pons, Cerebellum, Reticular formation, medulla

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Forebrain

uppermost and largest brain region; Corpus Callosum, Cerebral Cortex

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Midbrain

Contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information

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Medulla

In the Hindbrain; controls vital life functions: breathing and circulation

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Pons

In the Hindbrain; helps coordinate movements on each side of the body

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Cerebellum

In the hindbrain; muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium

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Reticular Formation

In the Hindbrain; nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla; regulates attention, arousal, and sleep

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Limbic System

Group of forebrain structures around the brainstem; involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory

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Hippocampus

Part of the limbic system; embedded in temporal lobe; Forms new memories

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Thalamus

In the limbic system; in the cerebral hemispheres; processes sensory information and distributes motor information

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Hypothalamus

Limbic System; located below the thalamus; Helps regulate both autonomic nervous divisions; links brain and endocrine system

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Amygdala

Limbic system; At the base of the temporal lobe; emotional responses; brains lookout; learning and forming memories

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Cerebral cortex

Hills and valleys; gray and white matter

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Cerebral hemispheres

Left and right halves of the brain

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Corpus Callosum

The highway between hemispheres

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Occipital Lobe

Lobe of Cerebral Cortex; at the back of each hemisphere; receiving area for visual information

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Parietal Lobe

Lobe of the Cerebral Cortex; located above temporal lobe; processes bodys sensations

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Temporal Lobe

Lobe in the Cerebral Cortex; located around the Temples; Auditory Information

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Frontal Lobe

Lobe in the Cerebral Cortex; Largest Lobe; voluntary muscle movements

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Cortical localization

Different functions are located in different areas of the brain

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Aphasia

Partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken/written language because of brain injury or damage

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Lateralization of Function

Specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain

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Broca

Cant speak but can comprehend; lower left frontal lobe

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95

Wernicke

cant comprehend but can speak; left temporal lobe damage

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96

Sensation

Process of detecting a physical stimulus

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Perception

Process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations

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Sensory Receptors

Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to a form of sensory stimulation

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Transduction

Physical energy is converted into a neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system

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Sensory Threshold

To be detected, a stimulus must be able to activate a sensory receptor cell

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