AP Human Geo Unit 6 Vocab Review

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ecumene

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117 Terms

1

ecumene

the permanently inhabited portion of the earth’s surface

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2

rural areas

farms and villages with low concentrations of people

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3

urban areas

cities with high concentrations of people

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4

suburbs

primarily residential areas near cities

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5

settlement

a place with a permanent human population

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6

urbanization

the developing of towns and cities

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7

percent urban

an indicator of the proportion of the population that lives in cities and towns as compared to those that live in rural areas

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8

site

the characteristics at the immediate location

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9

situation

the location of a place relative to its surroundings and its connectivity to other places

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10

city-state

consisted of an urban center (the city) and its surroundings territory and agricultural villages

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11

urban hearth

early city-states emerged in an area generally associated with defensible sites and river valleys in which seasonal floods and fertile soils allowed for an agricultural surplus

ex: the Tigris-Euphrates Valley (Mesopotamia), the Nile River Valley, and Nile Delta

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12

urban area

defined by as a central city plus land developed for commercial, industrial, or residential purposes, and includes the surrounding suburbs

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13

metropolitan area (metro area)

a collection of adjacent cities economically connected across which population density is high and continuous

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14

metropolitan statistical area (MSA)

another way to define a city

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15

micropolitan statistical areas

cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants but less than 50,000 with a high degree of integration

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16

nodal region

focal point in a matrix of connections

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17

social heterogenity

the population of cities as compared to other areas contains a greater variety of people

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18

Borchert’s transportation model

describes urban growth based on transportation technology

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19

pedestrian cities

cities shaped by the distances people could walk

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20

streetcar suburbs

communities that grew up along rail lines

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21

suburbanization

the process of people moving, usually from the cities into residential areas on the outskirts of cities

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22

sprawl

the rapid expansion of the spatial extent of a city

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23

leap frog development

when developers purchase land and build communities beyond the periphery of the city’s built area

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24

boomburbs (boomburgs)

rapidly growing communities (over 10 percent per 10 years) that have a total population of over 100,000 people and are not the largest city in the metro area

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25

edge cities

nodes of economic activity that have developed in the periphery of large cities

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26

counter urbanization (deurbanization)

the counter-flow of urban residents leaving cities

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27

exurbs

the prosperous residential districts beyond the suburbs

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28

reurbanization

as some suburbanites return to live in the city

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29

megacities

have a population of more than 10 million people

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30

megalopolis

describes a chain of connected cities

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31

conurbation

an uninterrupted urban area made of towns, suburbs, and cities

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32

world cities or global cities

cities that exert influence far beyond their national boundary

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33

urban hierarchy

a ranking based on influence or population size

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34

nodal cities

command centers on a regional and occasionally national level

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35

urban system

an interdependent set of cities that interact on the regional, national, and global scale

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36

rank size rule

it states that the nth largest city in any region will be 1/nth the size of the largest city

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37

higher order services

expensive services that need a large number of people to support, and are only occasionally utilized

ex: large malls, luxury car dealerships

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38

lower order services

less expensive services that require a small population to support and are used on a daily or weekly basis

ex: local grocery stores, gas stations

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39

primate city

a city that is more developed than other cities in the system and consequently disproportionately more powerful

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40

gravity model

states that larger and closer places will have more interactions than places that are smaller and farther from each other

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41

central place theory

used to explain the distribution of cities of different sizes across a region

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42

central place

a location where people go to receive goods and services

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43

market area

a zone that contains people who will purchase goods or services

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44

hexagonal hinterlands

the shape was a compromise between a square-people living in the corners would be farther from the central place-and a circle-where there would be overlapping areas of service

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45

threshold

the size of population necessary for any particular service to exist and remain profitable

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46

range

the distance people will travel to obtain specific goods or services

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47

functional zonation

the idea that proportions of an urban area (regions, or zones within the city) have specific and distinct purpose

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48

central business district (CBD)

the commercial heart of a city

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49

bid rent thory

explains agricultural land use and land use in the CBD

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50

industrial/commercial zone

the zone outside the CBD that is dedicated to industry

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51

commercial relationship

which is when commercial interest benefit eachother

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52

residential zone

areas where people live

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53

concentric zone model

describes a city as a series of rings that surrounds the CBD

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54

Hoyt’s sector model

describes how different types of land use and housing were all located near the CBD early in a city’s history

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55

Harris and Ulman multi-nuclei model

suggests that functional zonation occurs around multiple centers or nodes

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56

peripheral model

describes suburban neighborhoods surrounding an inner city and served by nodes of commercial activity along a ring road or beltway

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57

galactic city model

in it an original CBD became surrounded by a system of smaller nodes that mimicked its function

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58

mosque

the building in the center of an islamic city that is usually surrounded by a complex of structures to serve the public

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59

citadel

a fortress designed to protect the city with its related palace and barracks for soldiers

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60

Griffin-Ford model

used to describe Latin American cities

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61

commercial spine

composed of theaters, restaurants, parks, and other amenities, ends with a mall

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62

mall

at the end of the commercial spine

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63

periferico

the outer ring of the city in Latin American cities

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64

shantytowns

areas of poorly built housing in Latin American cities

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65

favelas (barrios)

neighborhoods marked by extreme poverty, homelessness, and lawlessness

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66

disamenity zones

areas not connected to city services and under the control of criminals

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67

traditional CBD

existed before European colonization has small shops clustered along narrow twisting streets; includes the formal economy

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68

colonial CBD

has broad, straight avenues and large homes, parks, and administrative centers

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69

informal economy zone

thrives with curbside, car side, and stall based businesses that often hire people temporarily and do not follow all regulations

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70

periodic markets

were small scale merchants congregate weekly or yearly to sell their goods

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71

informal settlements (squatter settlements)

densely populated areas that often lack sufficient public services for electricity, water, and sewage

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72

McGee model

describes the land use of many large cities in Southeast Asia where the focus of the modern city is often a former colonial port zone

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73

zoning ordinances

regulations that define how property in specific geographic regions may be used

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74

urban planning

a process of promoting growth and controlling change in land use

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75

residential zones

those areas of a city devoted to where people live rather than to commercial or industrial functions

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76

inner city

residential areas surrounding the CBD

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77

residential density gradient

as one moves farther from the inner city population and housing unit density declines and types of housing change

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78

filtering

neighborhoods undergo transformations over time as existing residents move out and new ones move in; houses pass from one social group to another

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79

invasion and succession

refers to the process by which one social or ethnic group gradually replaces another through filtering

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80

urban infill

the process of increasing the residential density of an area by replacing open space and vacant housing with residences

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81

suburbanization of business

the movement of commerce out of cities to suburbs where rents are cheaper and commutes for employees are shorter

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82

municipality

refers to the local entity that is all under the same jurisdiction

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83

incorporation

the act of legally joining together to form a new city

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84

bedroom communities

commuter suburbs within the larger metro area

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85

unincorporated

populated regions that do not fall within the legal boundary or any city or municipality

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86

public transportation

buses, subways, light rails, and trains that are operated by a governmental agency

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87

sustainability

using the Earth’s resources while not causing permanent damage to the environment

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88

smart growth policies

used to combat urban sprawl and create a new vision for cities that are more sustainable and equitable; focuses on city planning and transportation systems of an urban region

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89

greenbelts

areas of underdeveloped land around an urban area

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90

slow growth cities

cities that desire to slow the population growth and development that could consume and alter their communities

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91

new urban design

used to put smart growth into action within communities

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92

mixed use neighborhoods

neighborhoods that have a mix of homes and businesses; vibrant, lively, walkable; homes have a variety or sizes and price ranges to create a socially diverse community, shared open spaces and community gathering spaces are also common

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93

urban infill

the process of building up underused lands within a city

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94

transit oriented development (TOD)

locates mixed use residential and business communities near mass transit stops resulting in a series of more compact communities which decreases the need for automobiles

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95

livability

a set or principles that supports sustainable urban designs

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96

population composition

shows where people live; gives a description of the people’s income, gender, ethnicity, race, family size, and other details

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97

census tracts

contiguous geographic regions that function as the foundation of a census

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98

census block

located in a densely populated urban area, very small, and consists of a single block bounded by four streets (used for census)

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99

redlining

the process by which banks refuse loans to those who want to purchase and improve properties in certain urban areas

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100

racial segregation in housing

when people live in separate neighborhoods based on their ethnicity or race

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