Institutions

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FAMILY AS AN INSTITUTION

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FAMILY AS AN INSTITUTION

set of people related by blood, marriage, or agreed-upon relations who share primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society (Schaefer) ;basic or most fundamental unit in any society

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sangre (blood)

jus sanguinis

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Kinship

a social network of people based on a common ancestry, marriage, or adoption

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Only the 3rd degree ascendants and descendants are recognized by the law

  1. Marriage 2.Inheritance 3. Obligation

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Family of Orientation

person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place

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Family of Procreation

person forms by having, adopting, or otherwise creating children

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Ascendants

parent, grandparents, great grandparents

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Descendants

children, grandchildren, great grandchildren

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Family Structures based on Form

Nuclear, Extended, Transnational, Separated, Single Parent, Reconstituted or Blended

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Nuclear

consists of two generations of family, parints, and their own or adopted children residing in the same household

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Extended

three generation family consisting of grandparents, their children and their grandchildren

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Transnational

live apart but who create and retain a sense of collective welfare and unity, in short "familyhood", even across national borders (Bryceson and Vuorela, 2002)

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Separated

husband and wife separated from each other

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Single Parent

consists of one parent and a child or children residing in one household

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Reconstituted or Blended

one or more parents have been married previously and they bring with them children from their previous marriage(s)

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Basis of Lineage

Patrilineal, Matrilineal, Bilateral (bilineal)

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Patrilineal

father's relatives

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Matrilineal

mother's relatives are important

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Bilateral (bilineal)

both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important

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Basis of Authority

Patriarchal, Matriarchal, Egalitarian

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Patriarchal

father is considered the head

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Matriarchal

authority is held by mother

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Egalitarian

regarded as equals

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Residential Patterns

Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Neo-local, Bilocal

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Patrilocal (Virilocal)

near husband's family

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Matrilocal (urixilocal)

near mother's family

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Neo-local

married couple lives separate from either side of families

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Bilocal

married couple lives with both or shifted residence from matrilocal to patrilocal or vice-versa

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Types of marriage

endogamy and exogamy

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Endogamy

practice of marrying within one's own group (royal family history)

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Exogamy

practice of marrying outside one's own group (different group)

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Basis of Partnership

Monogamous, Polygamous, Polygyny, Polyandry

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Monogamous

husband only has one wife

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Polygamous

or wife has more than one partner at the same time

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Polygyny

marriage of man to several women

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Polyandry

wife with more than one husband

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POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

power

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Power

Max Weber defined power as the ability to carry out one person's or group's will, even in the presence of resistance or opposition from others

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Political Authority

Legal Rational, Traditional, Charismatic

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Legal Rational Authority

derived from the understanding that specific individuals have clearly defined rights and duties to uphold and implement rules and procedures personally

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Traditional Authority

authority is rooted from the assumption that the customs of the past legitimated the present; things have always been and should remain that way

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Charismatic Authority

authority is derived from a ruler's ability to inspire passion and devotion among followers; supernatural leaders; blind obedience; unconditional compliance; unqualified emotional commitment

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43

5 Elements of the State

Nation (People), Territory, Laws, Sovereignty, International Recognition

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Governments

vary according to the relationship that exists between the ruled and the ruler.

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State

is the institutionalized way of organizing power within territorial limits.

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Functions of the State

Establishing laws and norms, Providing social control, Ensuring economic stability, Setting goals, Protecting against outside threats

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Types of States

Autocracy, Totalitarian Government, Democracy

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Autocracy

ultimate authority and rule of the government rest with one person who is the chief source of laws and major agent of social control

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Example of Autocracy

Saddam Hussein

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Totalitarian Government

one group has total control of the nation's social institutions

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ELEMENTS of TOTALITARIAN

single political party,, use of terror, media control, control of military, control of economy, elaborate ideology

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Example of Totalitarian

Joseph Stalin & Mao Tse Tung

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Democracy

political system operating under the principles of constitutionalism, representative government, majority rule, civilian rule, and minority rights

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Kinds of Political Systems

Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States

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Bands

small group of related households occupying a particular region that came together periodically on an ad hoc basis but which do not yield their sovereignty to the larger collective

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Tribes

group of nominally independent communities occupying a specific region, sharing a common language and culture, which are integrated by some unifying factor

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Chiefdoms

regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people

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States

centralized political system with the power to coerce

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ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS

economy

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Economy

social institution that determines how society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services

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Economic Systems

Capitalism, Mixed Market, Socialism, Communism

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Capitalism

based on private ownership of the means of production, in which resource allocation depends largely on market forces; Laissez-faire Capitalism: government should stay out

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Mixed Market Economy

combines free enterprise capitalism with government regulation of business, industry, and social welfare programs

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Socialism

sources of production (including factories, raw materials, and transportation and communication systems) are collectively owned; state ownership of common property

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Communism

community ownership of the property; all labor belongs to the laborer

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NON STATE INSTITUTIONS

Civil society, Collective Behavior, Social Movements, Propaganda

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Civil Society

third sector of the society; NGOs, interest groups, media, private organizations

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Collective Behavior

voluntary, spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values; Crowd and Mass

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CROWD

large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity

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MASS

number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but not in one another's vicinity

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Social Movements

organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action

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Propaganda

information provided by individuals or groups that have vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one

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Types of Social Movements

Reform, Revolutionary, Religious, Alternative, Resistance, Revitalization

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Reform Movements

seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure;rooting from the "grassroots level"; animal rights groups, mothers against drunk driving, solo parent organizations

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Revolutionary Movement

movements seeking total change; aims to remake the entire system by replacing institutions to new ones

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Religious Movements

seek to create change based on spiritual or supernatural beliefs ; renewing people through "inner change"

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Alternative Movements

seeks limited change in some aspects of people's behavior

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Resistance Movements

seek to prevent change or undo change that has already occurred (Regressive Movements)

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Revitalization Movements

often of religious nature, purpose of totally reforming a society

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ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS

education

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Types of Education

Formal, Non Formal, Informal

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Formal

institutional activity; follows a hierarchical structure; standardized curriculum ; teacher-student relationship

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Non Formal

organized and systematic education activity either separately or as a special feature

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Informal

lifelong process naturally derived from experience; do not require educational institution nor curriculum

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Functionalist View on Education

Socialization; Cultural Transmission; Academic Skills; Innovation; Child Care; Postponing Job Hunting

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Conflict Theory View

Social Control; Screening and Allocation; Credentialized Society

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Issues with Education

unequal access to education; ESL; dropouts; school violence; homeschooling; standardized testing; gender bias; gifted

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RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS

Religion

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Religion

set of rituals, rationalized by myth, which mobilizes supernatural powers for the purpose of achieving or preventing transformations of state in people and nature; beliefs and patterns of human behavior by which humans try to deal with what they view as important problems that cannot be solved through the application of known technology or techniques of organization.

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Religions Across the World

Atheists ;Theist ;Agnostics ; Monotheism; Polytheism

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Supernatural Beings and Powers

Pantheon, Ancestral Spirits, Animism, Animitism

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Pantheon

several gods and goddesses of people

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Animism

belief in spirit beings which are thought to animate nature

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Animatism

belief that the world is animated by impersonal supernatural powers

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Religious Specialists

Priests or priestess and Shaman

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Priest or Priestess

full time religious specialist

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Shaman

part time specialist who has unique power acquired from his or her own initiative; thought to possess exceptional abilities to deal with supernatural beings and powers

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98

Rites of Passage

mark important stages in lives of individuals

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TYPES according to Arnold Van Gennep

Separation, Transition, Incorporation, Rites of Intensification

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Separation

ritual removal of individual from society

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