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Macromolecules

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314 Terms

1

Macromolecules

A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules

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CHNOPS

elements essential for life

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3

Covalent Bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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4

Polar

Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.

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5

Nonpolar

No partial charges. Do not mix with water.

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Ionic Bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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7

Hydrogen Bond

A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.

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8

Electronegative

the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atoms is in a compound

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9

Cohesion

Attraction between molecules of the same substance

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10

Adhesion

An attraction between molecules of different substances

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11

Capillarity

The rise of a liquid in a fine, hollow tube or in a narrow space.

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12

Specific Heat

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius

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13

Evaporation

The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas

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14

Solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

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15

pH

hydrogen ion concentration

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16

Acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

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Base

A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.

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Neutral

Not favoring either side (pH of 7)

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19

Hydronium

H3O+

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20

Hydroxide

OH-

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21

Buffer

A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.

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22

Carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

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23

Monosaccharide

A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.

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24

Protein

An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

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Amino Acid

Building blocks of protein; has an amino group, carboxyl group and a variable group

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Lipid

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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Fatty Acid

hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid

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28

Glycerol

A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.

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29

Phospholipid

a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes

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30

Triglyceride

a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule

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31

Wax

lipid made of a long-chain fatty acid that is esterified to a long-chain alcohol; serves as a protective coating on some feathers, aquatic mammal fur, and leaves

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32

Nucleic Acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

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Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

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Polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

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Monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

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Isomer

Compounds with the same formula but different structures.

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37

Hydrocarbon

An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen

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38

Functional Group

A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions.

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39

Dehydration Synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a H from one molecule and an OH from the other molecule

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40

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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Glycosidic Linkage

A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.

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42

Saturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms

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43

Unsaturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.

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44

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

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45

Hydrophilic

water loving

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46

Polypeptide

long chain of amino acids that makes proteins

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47

Peptide Bond

The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid

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48

Amino Group

A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms

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49

R-Group

used to represent one of 20 possible side chains found in amino acids of living systems

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50

Carboxyl Group

A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

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51

Primary Structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

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52

Secondary Structure

The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.

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53

Tertiary Structure

The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

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54

Quaternary Structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

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55

Enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

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56

Catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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57

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.

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58

Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in living things

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Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

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Responsiveness

Reaction to a change inside or outside the body

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Reproduction

Ability to generate offspring

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62

Prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Unicellular

Made of a single cell

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Multicellular

Made up of more than one cell.

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Cell Wall

A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.

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Flagella

whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement

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Eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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Organelle

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

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Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

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Endosymbiosis

A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.

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Mitochondrion

Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

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Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

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Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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Cell Membrane

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell

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Chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

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77

Nuclear Envelope

layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell

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78

Nucleolus

Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes

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79

Ribosome

Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.

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80

Endomembrane System

A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

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81

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.

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Smooth ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.

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Rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

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84

Golgi Apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

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85

Lysosome

A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.

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86

Vesicle

Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.

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87

Vacuole

Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

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Hydrolytic Enzyme

enzyme that catalyzes a reaction in which the substrate is broken down by the addition of water

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89

Contractile Vacuole

saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell

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90

Central Vacuole

in a mature plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth, storage, and sequestration of toxic substances

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91

Peroxisome

organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water

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92

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

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93

Microfilaments

a small rodlike structure, about 4-7 nanometers in diameter, present in numbers in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells.

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94

Extracellular Matrix

a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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95

Plasmodesmata

An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells

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96

Tight Junction

a firm seal between two adjacent animal cells created by protein adherence

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97

Desmosome

a type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as a rivet, fastening cells together

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98

Gap Junction

A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells.

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99

Lipid Bilayer

flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings

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ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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