PSY209 exam 1

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somatic intervention

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129 Terms

1

somatic intervention

manipulating the body may affect behavior

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somatic intervention: administer a hormone

behaviors affected: strength of mating behavior

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somatic intervention: stimulate brain region electrically

movement toward goal object

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somatic intervention: cut connections between parts of nervous system

behaviors affected: recognition of stimulus

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behavioral neuroscience summary

  • through somatic behavior manipulations we are able to examine how the brain responds and changes through experience

  • this change in brain functions reflects neuroplasticity

  • can be relatively protracted as well as short acting

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five major perspectives of behavioral neuroscience

  • describing behavior (structurally and functionally)

  • studying evolution of behavior

  • observe development of behavior and its biological characteristics over the lifespan

  • studying biological mechanisms of behavior

  • studying applications of behavioral neuroscience

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true or false: brain can feel pain

false; brain cannot feel pain; meninges can feel pain (line the skull) but the brain itself cannot

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true or false: sleep deprivation can affect the brain in many ways

true; even though we don't know what sleep does, we know it is vital

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true or false; you don't generate new neurons beyond adolescence

false; neurogenesis allows for cells to regenerate; can be great for retaining new info; essentially the idea of rewiring the brain

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true or false: exercise is just as good for your brain as it is for your body

true; allows for the efficient transmission of nutrients and chemicals throughout the brain; keeps our brains computationally intact; neurogenesis is more readily promoted by exercise

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true or false; majority of brain cells are neurons

false; majority of brain cells are glial cells

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glial cells

a type of cell that provides physical and chemical support to neurons and maintain their environment

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true or false: surgical removal of almost half your brain is possible with little to no effect on personality or memory

true; your brain is mostly fat

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central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord; coordinates the activities of the whole body

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body; all parts of the nervous system found outside the skull and spinal columns

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the brain

  • the largest component of the CNS

  • the major unit responsible for the functions of the CNS

  • encased in the skull and protected by the cranium

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blood brain barrier (BBB)

protects the brain; makes movement of substances from the blood into the brain more difficult than other organs

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brain is composed of more than -------- neurons, which convey information necessary for control of our body and ability to interact with our environment

80 billion

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glia means...

"glue" in greek

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glial cells...

  • support neuron functions

  • communicate with each other and with neurons

  • alter neuron structure and excitability

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four types of glial cells

  1. Astrocyte

  2. Oligodendrocyte

  3. Microglia

  4. Schwann cell

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Nodes of Ranvier

bumps on a myelin sheath around the axon of a neuron; information jumps from those nodes, which helps them rapidly shoot down a neuron, allowing for quick communication

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neurons are like snowflakes because...

none are exactly the same in length; it depends on your physiology

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what is released from the axon terminal depends on...

the cell it is on and what information it is programmed to release

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different views of the brain

  • horizontal plane view

  • sagittal plane view

  • coronal plane view

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directional terms used to identify specific brain regions of interest

  • anterior

  • posterior

  • dorsal

  • ventral

  • medial

  • lateral

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CNS lobes

  • frontal

  • parietal

  • occipital

  • temporal

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frontal lobe

personality, movements, memory

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parietal lobe

touch, visual, auditory, and integration of information

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occipital lobe

sensory info, mostly visual

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temporal lobe

memory, brain machinery, auditory info

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anterior

front

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posterior

back

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dorsal

top

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ventral

bottom

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medial

middle

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lateral

sides

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brain is dominated by how many cerebral hemispheres?

2

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gyri and sulci

the ridges and furrows of tissue of the cerebral cortex

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purpose of gyri and sulci

Increases the surface area of the brain for storing more info

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corpus callosum

200 million axons that interconnect the two hemispheres

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Phineas Gage

railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function

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executive human brain functions of prefrontal cortex

  • balance short term rewards and long term goals

  • impulse control

  • modulation of intense emotions

  • shifting behaviors when situations change

  • weighing possible consequences of behavior

  • simultaneously considering lots of info when faced with complex challenges

  • inhibiting inappropriate behavior

  • forming strategies and planning

  • organizing thoughts/problem solving

  • focusing attention

  • considering future

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prefrontal cortex overall use

value based decision making

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cerebral cortex has 6 distinct layers that are distinguished by

  • type of neuron

  • pattern of dendrites or axons

  • pyramid-shaped cell body in layer III or V

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von economo neurons (VENs)

special type of bipolar neurons in the cortex; humans have way more VENs than all other species

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basal ganglia

important in motor control

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basal ganglia include four nuclei:

  1. caudate nucleus

  2. putamen

  3. globus pallidus

  4. substantia nigra (midbrain)

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parkinson's disease

neurogenerative disorder caused by degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra area of the basal ganglia- unable to produce dopamine

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limbic system

  • complex system of nerves in the brain

  • near the edge of the cortex

  • has to do with instinct and mood

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thalamus

complex clusters of nuclei that act as a relay box directing sensory info to appropriate higher-order regions like the cortex

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thalamus is like a physician because...

it diagnoses information from different sensory modalities (gustation, tactile, auditory, visual)

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once the thalamus receives information...

it transmits it to different areas of the brain for subsequent processing

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Hypothalamus

hub for many vital regulatory functions including hunger, thirst, temperature, and sex

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hypothalamus is vastly connected with numerous other brain systems important for...

cognition, mood, motoric behavior

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midbrain

comparatively smaller than the forebrain and hindbrain

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ventral tegmental area

responsible for motivting us toward goals (good or bad goals)

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hindbrain

more simple than cortes, controls lower order functions; important for motor control and coordination as well as certain forms of basic learning

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pons

attached to the cerebellum; contains motor and sensory nuclei and gives rise to cranial nerves

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pons is important for...

  • relaying signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum

  • regulatory functions including sleep, respiration, and facial sensation

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medulla

A brain stem structure involved in many essential body functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, swallowing

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medulla contains...

cranial nerve nuclei, making it important for information processing between brain and body

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techniques developed to visualize different forms of neurons as well as to help identify neurons that express certain proteins and/or neurotransmitters

  • DAPI stain

  • Nissl stain

  • Immunocytochemistry

  • In situ hybridization

  • Ca^2+ imaging

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DAPI stain

a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to DNA in a cell

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Nissl stain

fills out the cell bodies of the neuron and works by the dye binding to any RNA in the cell; this can be used to measure size and density of cell

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In situ hybridization

method in which a probe labels a specific DNA or RNA sequence in the cell; this technique results in clear expression of cell type

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immunocytochemistry

uses antibodies to label the proteins from a cell

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calcium imaging

when cells fire they release Ca^2+, which can be imaged using a miniscope in awake behaving animals

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multiple neurons

one axon, many dendrites; most common type

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bipolar neurons

one axon, one dendrite

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unipolar neurons

a single extension branches in two directions forming a receptive pole and an output zone

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how is information processed by the brain

debated whether the brain functions as a global system or a collection or relatively independent elements

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Camille Golgi

  • italian scientist, developed a procedure where silver chromate revealed the structure of individual neurons

  • developed the reticular theory

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reticular theory

suggests everything in the nervous system reflects a single continuous network (network known as "reticulum")

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Santiago Cajal

used the golgi technique to reveal a few individual cells standing out, and importantly, that there were gaps between cells

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Neuron Doctrine

The hypothesis that the brain is composed of discrete nerve cells that are essential units for information processing (Cajal's theory)

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synapses

gaps between cells where information is transmitted from cell to cell; electrical and chemical information passed through synapses

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each neuron has how many synapses?

between 5000 and 10000 synapses; this means the brain can have over 100 trillion synapses

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when describing the passage of info from one neuron to the next, neuron 1 is known as the (1)------- neuron and neuron 2 is known as the (2)-------- neuron

  1. presynaptic

  2. postsynaptic

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synaptic cleft

The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.

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synaptic vesicles

Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain specialized chemicals called neurotransmitters

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synapses can be divided based on the type of information being processed. This information can be either

electrical alone (uncommon) or chemical and electrical

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electrical synapses

  • much smaller than chemical and electrical combined

  • work by large ions alone freely passing from one neuron to the next

  • electrical synapses are very quick

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chemical synapses

include both electrical and chemical information

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transmission in the CNS can occur in multiple ways:

  • neuron to neuron

  • the ventricles contain cerebrospinal fluid, which can assist with neuronal communication

  • ependymal cells line the brain ventricles and interact with neurons to cause release of chemicals into cerebrospinal fluid

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diffusion of ions through

ion channels

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electrostatic pressure

distribution of electrical charges (opposites attract; like repel); mediates resting potential

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membrane permeability

the membrane of a cell separates the interior from exterior and can be selectively permeable; open and close depending on status of the cell

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leak potassium channels are open during

resting potential

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sodium-potassium pump

mechanism that pushes sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell

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resting potential

reflects a period when a neuron is not being influenced by other neurons nor is it producing its own signals

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how to know that a neuron is at rest

  • by inserting a microelectrode into the neuron we can compare its interior charge relative to its exterior charge to determine its resting membrane potential

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Oscilloscope

a laboratory instrument that is capable of displaying a graph of voltage as a function of time on the face of a cathode ray tube; used in determining resting potential

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plasma membrane of neurons...

prevents ions from entering or leaving the cell

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ions involved in the resting potential of a cell contribute to its ----- charge

negative

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during resting potential most ion channels are...

closed

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resting potential reflects a balance between...

diffusion and electrostatic pressure

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Na+

Sodium

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K+

Potassium

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Nernst potential

the theoretical intracellular electrical potential that would be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the concentration force

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