Bio Anthropology Midterm 1

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Aristotle

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172 Terms

1

Aristotle

1st comparative anatomist

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2

Monogenesis

single origin

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3

Polygenesis

multiple origins

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4

Andreas Vesalius

founder of modern anatomy

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5

John Ray

created 1st classification of plants and animals: genus and species

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6

species

reproductively isolated organisms, specific ability to reproduce

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7

genus

Similar species, shared general traits

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8

taxonomy

science of biological classification

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9

Carolus Linnaeus

founder of taxonomy, systema naturae, creator of 4 races

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10

Georges Leclerc

Founder of natural history museums

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11

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

1st evolutionary biologist

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12

Gregor Mendel

pea experiments, inheritance

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13

law of segregation

traits are in pairs of units (genes), 1 unit per parent, units separate in meiosis and units reunite in fertilization

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14

allele

alternate expression of gene

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15

dominant

expressed trait (E)

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16

recessive

masked trait (e)

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17

genotype

genetic makeup of individual specific alleles

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18

phenotype

observed characteristic

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19

homozygous

same allele (ee, EE)

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20

heterozygous

two different alleles (Ee)

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21

law of independent assortment

traits are inherited independently from 2 different chromosomes

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22

polygenic traits

alleles @ 2 or more loci contribute to trait

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23

mendelian traits characteristics

1 gene locus, discontinuous, fixed, different frequencies, identified loci

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24

polygenic traits characteristics

1+ gene locus, continuous, environmental factors, statistic-based, unidentified loci

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25

evolutionary synthesis

unified theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection

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26

thomas henry huxley

Darwin’s “bulldog”, forcefully promoted theory of natural selection

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27

population genetics

focuses on the changes in gene frequency and the effects of those changes on adaptation and evolution

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28

mutation

random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may have multiple effects

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29

gene flow

exchange of alleles between 2 populations

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30

genetic drift

random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next, with greater effect in small populations

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31

genomics

study of an organism’s entire set of genes- the genome

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32

locus

the location on chromosome of a specific gene

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33

polymorphism

presence of 2+ alleles at a locus and where the frequency of the alleles is greater than 1% of the population

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34

antigens

proteins on the surface of cells that stimulate the immune system’s antibody production

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35

antibodies

molecules that form as part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances, they attach to foreign antigens

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36

codominance

2 different alleles that are equally dominant, both are fully expressed in a hetero phenotype

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37

pleiotropy

a single gene can have multiple effects

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38

Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin

DNA description

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39

functions of DNA

store genetic info, replication, protein synthesis

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40

chromosome

long, wound molecule of DNA

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41

2

# of chains of nucleotides in a chromosome

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composition of a nucleotide

sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base

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43

nitrogen bases

adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

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gene

segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a protein that will determine traits

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karyotype

chromosome set in each cell

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46

46

# of chromosomes in a human

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47

23

# of homologous pairs in a human

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48

autosomal/somatic

body cells for tissues

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gamete

sex cell

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50

1st step of DNA replication

enzymes unzip the hydrogen bonds between bases of each strand

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51

2nd step of DNA replication

strands separate

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52

3rd step of DNA replication

unattached free-floating nucleotides in nucleus attract

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53

4th step of DNA replication

bases re-bond with complementary bases

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54

5th step of DNA replication

2 new chainz form and coil

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55

mitosis

replicated DNA splits into 2 cells, with a replica of each chromatid

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somatic

type of cell produced through mitosis

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2 identical somatic daughter cells

product of mitosis

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meiosis

reproduces new gametes in testes and ovaries

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cross over event

recombination swapping

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4 not identical daughter cells

product of meiosis

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function of proteins

body structure, function/regulation

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amino acid

small molecule made of 3 nitrogen bases (codon)

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codon

sequence of 3 nitrogen bases

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polypeptide chain

chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

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protein

1+ polypeptide chains

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rna

ribonucleic acid, single strand polynucleotide chain

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67

dna vs rna

sugar

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68

uracil

nitrogen base present in rna instead of thynine

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base pairs in dna

adenine and thymine, cytosine and guanine

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70

base pairs in rna

uracil and adenine, cytosine and guanine

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transcription

step 1 in protein synthesis

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transciption

part of DNA separate, free RNA nucleotides attract and form a complementary strand

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where translation takes place

cytoplasm

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translation

step 2 to protein synthesis

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20

# of amino acids

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64

# of nucleotide combinations

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77

translation

ribosome attaches to mRNA, which is decoded and implemented

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stop codon

calls for the stop of protein synthesis, no amino acid

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tRNA

transport amino acids and stack to form a protein

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80

diploid

cell that has full complement of paired chromosomes

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haploid

cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes

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haplotypes

group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaced loci on a single chromosome

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haplogroups

large set of haplotypes that may be used to define a population

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translocations

rearrangements of chromosomes due to the insertion of genetic material from one chromosome to another

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85

nondisjunctions

failure of chromosomes to properly segregate during meiosis

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effect of nondisjunctions

can cause gametes with abnormal number of chromosomes

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monosomy

condition in which only one of a specific pair of chromosomes is present in a cells nucleus

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trisomy

condition where an additional chromosome exists within a homologous pair

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89

mRNA

responsible for making a chemical copy if a gene needed for a specific protein

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rRNA

structural component of a ribosome

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91

anticodons

sequences of 3 nitrogen bases carried by tRNA, complementary to mRNA codons

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92

phenotypic plasticity

the ability of an organism to positively respond to environmental stress

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93

acclimatization

an organism’s non-genetic way of coping with a stressor, short-term and reversible

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94

natural selection

long-term evolutionary change based on chance and fitness, genetic and not reversible

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95

adaptation

genetic, generational change to deal with a stressor

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96

vasodilation

increasing blood flow, releases heat @ surface

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sweating

heat lost as sweat through sweat glands

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98

vasoconstriction

decreasing blood flow, retains heat near core

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99

shivering

muscles contracting releasing bursts of heat

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100

Basal Metabolic Rate

measure of minimum level of energy requires to maintain body at rest

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