AP Psych Semester 1

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Sensation

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140 Terms

1

Sensation

the process of receiving and representing stimulus energies through the nervous system

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2

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information

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3

Sensation is to _______________ and perception is to _____________________

detection; interpretation

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4

Top-down processing

patient's negative expectations about the outcome of surgery can increase their post surgical pain

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5

Selective attention

students in a study were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were on the phone

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6

Change blindness

doesn't notice changes that happen in front of you when your attention is elsewhere

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7

Transduction

The process by which your ears convert sound waves from a sound into neural impulses

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8

converts physical stimuli into neural messages

Why is transduction important to sensation?

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9

Absolute threshold

smelling something minutes before someone else; meaning you have a lower _____________________

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10

They'd be wrong to think that unconsciously processed information is unusually persuasive

Subliminal persuasion....why would someone who believes in this be wrong?

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11

Signal Detection Theory

emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of thresholds

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12

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus

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13

Minimizes sensory adaptation

Result of constant quivering of the eyes

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14

Biopsychosocial approach to understanding perception

Perception is the combo of our sensory capacities, cultural contacts and gestalt principles

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15

parapsychology

the study of things like telepathy

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16

intensity of colors

light wave amplitude determines the...

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17

Retina

Light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones

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18

longest - redshortest - blue/violet

How humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves...

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19

Hue

Intensity is to brightness as wavelength is to_____________________

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20

Iris

What controls the dilation of the pupil?

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21

The ganglion cells before its processed by feature detectors

What is visual information processed by?

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22

Feature Detection

When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o'clock, certain brain cells are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o'clock

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23

Young-helmholtz Theory

The retina contains 3 kinds of color receptors

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24

Opponent-process theory

cells that are stimulated by exposure to YELLOW light are inhibited by exposure to BLUE light

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25

Gestalt Psychology

emphasized the whole may exceed the sum of its parts

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26

Figure Ground Principles

the cocktail party effect shows _______________________

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27

Visual Cliff Experiment

showed that the ability to perceive depth is at least partly innate

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28

Retinal disparity

3D movies enhances our sense of depth perception by simulating the effects of ___________________________

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29

stroboscopic movement

Cartoons like Bugs Bunny hoping on the screen is an example of _____________________________

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30

Shape constancy

textbooks cast a trapezoidal image on the retina but people perceive them as rectangles due to the ___________________________

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31

misperception of distance

Ames room displays how we can misperceive distance

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32

color constancy

an object's color is perceived/influenced by its surrounding objects

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33

Immanuel Kent

emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences

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34

John Lock

believed people learn to experience the world through experience

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35

sensory restriction

only causes damage early in life, suggesting there is a critical period for more perceptual development

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36

perceptual set

stereotypes are most similar to __________________________; after watching a scary movie you perceive a sound in your home as an intruder

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37

frequency of the sound wave

Pitch is determined by......

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38

Someone with Sensorineural hearing loss

What does a cochlear implant benefit?

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39

middle ear function

when the middle ear is damaged, a hearing aid could aid/restore the sense of hearing

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40

Initiates transduction and the transmission of neural messages to the auditory cortex

What does movement of the hair cells along the basilar membrane do?

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41

nerve deafness

would likely happen as a result of damage to the basilar membrane

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42

conduciton hearing loss

Effects of rupture of the eardrum

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43

Place theory

high frequency sounds trigger large vibrations near the beginning of the basilar membrane suggest ___________________

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44

Place vs. Frequency Theory

Frequency - low pitchPlace - high pitch

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45

yes!

Is place and frequency theory correct about how we hear pitch?

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46

it reaches both ears at the same time

Difficulty of hearing overhead sounds indicates....

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47

Pressure spots

when tickling someone, a person strokes adjacent pressure spots on their skin

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48

Receptor cells for kinesthesis

located in the joints, tendons, bones, and ear

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49

Nociceptors

if you burn yourself, ______________________ transmit pain triggering signals to your CNS; also initiate neural impulses leading to pain

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50

gate-control theory

suggests pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate

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51

auditory

Tinnitus is the phantom ________________________ sensation

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52

why children resist eating certain foods

Kids have more taste receptors so their sensitivity to taste is greater

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53

smell

What are olfactory receptor cells used for?

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54

Kinesthesia

system for sensing position and movement of body parts

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55

vestibular sense

ability to detect whether your body is in a horizontal or vertical position depends on the __________________________

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56

Sensory interactions

With eyes closed and nose plugged, it's hard to distinguish tastes as different

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57

Embodied cognition

our bodies can alter our cognitive preferences and judgments

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58

community psychologists

Psychologists who work to understand the quality of life of individuals

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59

psychodynamic perspective

how our bodies unconsciously remembers experiences that our minds cannot recall

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60

mary calkins

first woman to become president of the American Psychological Association

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61

mental processes

Cognition revolution involved a renewed interest in ______________________

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62

placebo

something which has a positive mental effect, but no physical effect

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63

mean in a data set

found by adding all numbers in the data set and then dividing by the number of values in the set

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64

introspection

examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

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65

replication in science

if two or more people do the same experiment they should get the same result; scientists can check their work

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66

operational definitions

making sure that a psychologist's claims match other psychologists' understandings

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67

psychiatrist

medical doctor who has specialized in treating psychological disorders

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68

pituitary gland

endocrine system's most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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69

introspection

Behaviorists dismiss the value of ___________________________

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70

contemporary psych

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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71

cause and effect

psychologists use experiments to distinguish between _____________________________

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72

wording effects on experiments

possible effects on participants caused by the order of presented words or even the choice of the words themselves

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73

biological, psychological, social-cultural

levels of analysis

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74

behavioral perspective

focuses on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior

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75

how much each point varies from the mean

standard deviation on a normal bell curve

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76

unconscious mind vs. individual's potential

psychoanalysis vs. humanists

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77

motor cortex

which part of the brain relies on visual information in coordinating our voluntary movements?

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78

parietal lobe

receives sensory input for touch and body position

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79

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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80

Alcohol in large and small doses

small doses: increase your heart rate, aggression, and impulsivenesslarger doses: typically causes sluggishness, disorientation, and slower reaction times, as it decreases your mental sharpness, blood pressure, and heart rate

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81

NREM-1 sleep

slowed breathing & irregular brain waves; sensations of falling or floating

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82

both are depressants

why is it dangerous to combine alcohol and a sleeping pill?

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83

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

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84

marijuana

feeling relaxed, hallucinations, memory loss are all effects of ______________________

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85

manifest content

the actual content of one's dream

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86

intensity

Light-wave amplitude determines the _____________________

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87

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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88

MRI

best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)...

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89

60 year olds spend less time in deep sleep

20 yr. olds vs. 60 yr. olds deep sleep patterns

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90

any stage

sleep talking may occur in what stage of sleep?

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91

Franz Gall

proposed the idea of phrenology in the 1800s

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92

natural selection

traits that contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to the succeeding generations

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93

endocrine system

glands secrete HORMONES that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells

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94

psychological, biological

Everything that is ______________________ is also ____________________

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95

REM Sleep

rapids eye movement

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96

spacing effect

information is retained better if there is a longer period of time between sessions or relearning

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97

Imagery

Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)

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98

Chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units

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99

semantic encoding

the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory

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100

short term

Passing an electric current through the brain during electroconvulsive therapy is most likely to disrupt _________ memory

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