CH. 2: CHEMICALS OF LIFE

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Matter definition

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1

Matter definition

Anything that occupies space

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2

What is chemistry?

the scientific study of matter and the interactions of matter

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3

What is composed of matter?

the physical universe (living and nonliving)

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4

What are elements?

substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means

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5

How many out of 118 known elements are “naturally occurring”?

92

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6

How many elements are involved in maintaining life?

24

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7
<p>What’s group 1’s name?</p>

What’s group 1’s name?

alkali metals except hydrogen

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8
<p>What’s group 2’s name?</p>

What’s group 2’s name?

alkali earth metals

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9
<p>What’s group blue’s name?</p>

What’s group blue’s name?

transitional metals

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10
<p>What’s group 7’s name?</p>

What’s group 7’s name?

halogens

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11
<p>What’s group 0’s name?</p>

What’s group 0’s name?

noble gases

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12
<p>What group does carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium belong to?</p>

What group does carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium belong to?

nonmetals

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13
<p>What group does boron, silicon, geranium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium belong to?</p>

What group does boron, silicon, geranium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium belong to?

metalloid

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14
<p>What does aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, ununtrium, flerovium, ununpentium, livermorium belong to?</p>

What does aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, ununtrium, flerovium, ununpentium, livermorium belong to?

basic metals

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15
<p>What group does the top green period belong to?</p>

What group does the top green period belong to?

lanthanide

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16

What group does the bottom green period belong to?

Actinide

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17

What are the elements important to physiology?

C, N, O, F, S, O, H, Ca, P

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18

Approximately, 96% is composed of the human body?

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

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19

Atom definition

the smallest unit of an element.

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20

What is a proton?

a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus

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21

What is a neutron?

a noncharged particle in an atomic nucleus.

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22

What is an electron?

a negatively charged particle that revolves around an atomic nucleus

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23

What is a nucleus comprised of ?

protons and neutrons

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24

What are electron shells?

where electrons orbit, or revolve around, the nucleus at high speeds that are located at various distances from the nucleus

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25

What are valence shells?

an atom’s outermost shell of electrons

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26

The overall electrical charge of an atom is _______.

neutral

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27

The number of protons = the number of ________.

electrons

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28

Most neutral atoms are ________

unstable

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29

How do atoms gain stability?

lose, gain, or share electrons

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30

Atomic number definition.

the number of protons (the number of electrons)

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31

Chemical symbol definition.

a shorthand for referring to an element or atom of an element

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32

Atomic mass definition.

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons

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33

What are isotopes?

Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

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34

What are radioisotopes?

certain isotopes of some elements have an unstable nucleus that emits high-energy radiation as it breaks down to form a more stable nucleus

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35

Molecule definition.

a substance formed by two or more atoms bonded together by covalent bonds only

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36

A molecule can have what atoms?

identical or different

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37

Compound definition

a substance formed by the atoms from two or more elements

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38

What bonds are in a compound?

ionic and covalent

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39

What is a chemical formula?

expresses the chemical composition of a substance

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40

Molecular formula definition.

expresses the composition of the molecule or compound using chemical symbols and numbers but it does not describe how the atoms are arranged

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41

Structural formula definition

is a diagram that indicates the composition and number of atoms but also shows how the atoms are linked to each other

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42

Chemical bond definition

a force of attraction between two atoms

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43

Ionic bond formation.

is the formation of 2 ions with opposing charges; cation (+) and an anion (-) that creates a force bond and an ionic compound

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44

What are covalent bonds?

atoms that form molecules by sharing electrons

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45

What are nonpolar covalent bonds?

they are shared electrons that spend equal time revolving between the two atoms

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46

A characteristic of a nonpolar covalent bond?

are hydrophobic

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47

What are polar covalent bonds?

they are an unequal sharing of electrons between the two atoms

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48

What are characteristics of a polar covalent bond?

  • One atom has greater electronegativity

  • are hydrophilic

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49

What is a hydrogen bond?

weak attractive force between slightly positive and a slightly negative areas

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50

How does a hydrogen bond occur?

occur within the same molecule, between different molecules, and between polar molecules and ions

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51

What is a chemical reaction?

bonds between atoms are formed or broken

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52

Synthesis (anabolic) reaction definition

the combining of smaller molecules to form more complex molecules

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53

Decomposition (catabolic) reaction definition

the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules.

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54

Exchange (rearrangement) reaction

a reaction in which two reactants exchange components to form two different products.

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55

Reversible reaction definition

the reactants and products may convert in both directions

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56

Inorganic substances definition

contain carbon or hydrogen but not both

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57

Organic substances definition

always contain both carbon and hydrogen, usually oxygen as well

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58

What is a major inorganic substance?

water

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59

What are some facts about water?

  • composes approximately 2/3 of body weight

  • occurs in the body as part of an aqueous solution

  • the solvent for electrically charged solutes

  • serves as a site for chemical reactions

  • used for transport of solutes

  • serves as a lubricant

  • aids in maintaining a constant body temperature

  • serves as a reactant in the breakdown (hydrolysis) of organic molecules

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60

What are water compartments?

specific locations where water is found in the body

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61

Intracellular fluid (ICF) definition

fluid within cells; about 65% of the total body water

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62

Extracellular fluid (ECF) definition

all fluid not in cells; about 35% of the total body water

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63

Interstitial fluid (tissue fluid) definition

fluid in spaces between cells

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64

Plasma definition

fluid portion of blood

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65

Lymph definition

fluid in lymphatic vessels

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66

Transcellular fluids definition

fluid in more limited locations/ more specific locations

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67

What are electrolytes?

Ionic compounds ionize (dissociate) in water, releasing ions

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68

Nonelectrolytes definition

do not ionize when they dissolve in water and are usually organic compounds

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69

Acid definition

increases H+ concentration in solution and releases H+ ions (protons)

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70

Base definition

decreases the H+ concentration in a solution

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71

What is pH?

a measure of the H+ concentration in a solution

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72

What is a pH scale?

indicates the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution

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73

What is a buffer?

  • Maintain normal pH of body fluids because slight pH changes can be harmful to body cells

  • Chemical or chemicals that either picks up or releases H+ to keep a solution’s pH constant

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74

What are salts?

are ionic compounds that ionize in water but do not produce H+ and OH-

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75

What is the dehydration synthesis?

removes water to join molecules

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76

What is hydrolysis?

adds water to break apart molecules

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77

What are carbohydrates?

an organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.

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78

Carbohydrates are what to the body?

the primary source of nutrient energy for cells of the body

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79

What are monosaccharides?

a simple sugar; a structural unit of carbohydrates.

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80

What is glucose?

the monosaccharide that is the primary energy source for cells

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81

Disaccharide definition

a molecule composed of two monosaccharides chemically combined

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82

Polysaccharide definition

an organic macromolecule formed of many monosaccharide units

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83

What are fructose and galactose?

isomers of glucose

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84

What is an isomer?

molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures

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85

Where are pentose sugars found in?

DNA nad RNA

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86

What is maltose?

aka malt sugar; glucose + glucose

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87

What is sucrose?

aka table sugar, glucose + fructose

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88

What is lactose?

aka dairy sugar; glucose + galactose

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89

What is glycogen?

the polysaccharide that is the storage form for carbohydrates in the body for animals

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90

Starch definition

  • plant carbohydrate storage

  • a common polysaccharide in foods derived from plants

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91

What are lipids?

  • a class of organic macromolecules that includes steroids, triglycerides, and phospholipids

  • diverse group composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

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92

What are triglycerides?

a lipid molecule composed of three fatty acids attached to glycerol; a fat molecule.

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93

What are phospholipids?

a molecule containing two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to glycerol

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94

What are steroids?

a group of lipids that includes sex hormones and cholesterol.

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95

What forms triglycerides?

Formed of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules

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96

What is glycerol?

an organic molecule that is the backbone of triglyceride and phospholipid molecules.

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97

What is a fatty acid?

an organic molecule that forms part of a triglyceride

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98

Triglycerides are nonpolar molecules, meaning that they are ______

hydrophobic

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99

What are triglycerides classified as?

saturated or unsaturated fats

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100

Where are triglycerides found in?

adipose tissue around internal organs and beneath the skin

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