Neurotransmitters (AP Psychology)

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acetylcholine (ACh)

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acetylcholine (ACh)

Released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles. It Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory. Some of its receptors are stimulated by nicotine (associated with Alzheimer's Disease) Deficiency - Alzheimer's

Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movement

<p>Released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles. It Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory. Some of its receptors are stimulated by nicotine (associated with Alzheimer&apos;s Disease) Deficiency - Alzheimer&apos;s</p><p>Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movement</p>
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dopamine (DA)

Voluntary movement -Alertness - Attention -Rewards -Emotion Excess - Schizophrenia Deficiency - Parkinson's Disease

<p>Voluntary movement -Alertness - Attention -Rewards -Emotion Excess - Schizophrenia Deficiency - Parkinson&apos;s Disease</p>
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norepinephrine (NE)

-"Fight or flight" response: elevates heart rate, circulation, respiration; slows digestion -Controls alertness, arousal -Mood elevation Deficiency - Depression, ADHD Excess - Anxiety, High blood pressure

<p>-&quot;Fight or flight&quot; response: elevates heart rate, circulation, respiration; slows digestion -Controls alertness, arousal -Mood elevation Deficiency - Depression, ADHD Excess - Anxiety, High blood pressure</p>
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serotonin

-Mood regulation -Hunger/Appetite --Arousal Deficiency - Depression (Treated with SSRI's - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; prevent serotonin from being reabsorbed in uptake, leaving more in synapses) Excess - Anxiety, OCD, Insomnia, Hypermania (associated with Depressive disorders, Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Eating disorders)

<p>-Mood regulation -Hunger/Appetite --Arousal Deficiency - Depression (Treated with SSRI&apos;s - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; prevent serotonin from being reabsorbed in uptake, leaving more in synapses) Excess - Anxiety, OCD, Insomnia, Hypermania (associated with Depressive disorders, Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Eating disorders)</p>
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GABA

Brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter Deficiency - Seizures, Insomnia

<p>Brain&apos;s main inhibitory neurotransmitter Deficiency - Seizures, Insomnia</p>
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glutamate

Brain's main (agonist) excitatory neurotransmitter -Creates links between neurons that form basis of learning, long-term memory. Excess - Multiple sclerosis Excess - Seizures & Migraines(Avoid foods with MSG - monosodium glutamate; overstimulate brain)

<p>Brain&apos;s main (agonist) excitatory neurotransmitter -Creates links between neurons that form basis of learning, long-term memory. Excess - Multiple sclerosis Excess - Seizures &amp; Migraines(Avoid foods with MSG - monosodium glutamate; overstimulate brain)</p>
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Acetylcholine

Alzheimers

<p>Alzheimers</p>
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Dopamine

oversupply = Schizophrenia, termors, Parkinson's

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Serotonin

Undersupply = Depression

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Norepinephrine

oversupply can depress mood

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GABA

undersupply = Seizures, tremors, insomnia

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Glutamate

Oversupply can overstimulate brain, migranes or seizures

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Endorphins

-Pain control & relief - Stress reduction -Feelings of pleasure -Natural opiates Deficiency - Addiction Potentially involved in addiction Morphine is an agonist for endorphins

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Endorphins

undersupply - Addiction Potentially involved in addiction

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Endorphins

oversupply can lead to insensitivity to pain/little pain

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