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148 Terms

1

marriage

a legally recognised contract between 2 or more people in a sexual relationship, who have an expectation of permanence about their relationship

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2

macro, meso, and micro approaches to studying family

Macro focuses society as a whole. At the miso level they are concerned with the interactions within groups where multiples social roles interact simultaneously. At the micro level, they conus on the dynamics between individuals within ones family.

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3

exchange theory

social relationships are based on giving and returning valued goods or services, individuals seek to maximise their rewards in their interactions with others

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4

monogamy/polygamy

monogomy is being married to one person and polygamy is being married to more than one person

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5

kinship

a person’s traceable ancestry ( by blood, marriage and or adoption)

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6

family life cycle

a set of predictable steps and patterns that families experience over time

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7

family life course

a sociological model of family that see the progression of events as fluid rather than as occurring in strict stages

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8

functionalist approach to studying marriage and family

functionalist believe that families are an important social institution and play a key role in stabilising society, they prefer a typical nuclear family.

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9

critical sociology approach to studying marriage and family

They look at issues around family such as domestic violence, and child abuse, inequality between the sexes and right right to dispose of family property equally

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10

Symbolic Interactionist approach to studying marriage and family -

it looks a family itself as a symbol, they stress that family is not an objective concrete reality

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11

What are some critiques of the functionalist approach to defining and understanding families?

It does not take into consideration of many groups and the differentiation between roles create tension among individuals who has conflicting roles

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12

Doing family

shifting language form family as a unit to family as a very allowing us to see how individual strategise to spend time together and maintain intimate relationships

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13

Concerted cultivation

Careful consideration and planning and arranging a wide variety of enrichment programs and extra curricular for children’s holistic cultivation

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14

Technology

the application of science to solve problems in daily life

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15

Digital divide

the uneven access to technology around race, class and geographic lines

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16

Knowledge gap

the gap in information that builds as groups grow up without access to technology

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17

E-readiness

the ability to sort through, interpret and process digital knowledge

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18

Media

all print, digital and electronic means of communication

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19

new media

all interactive forms of information exchange

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20

Media globalisation

the worldwide integration of media through the cross cultural exchange of ideas

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21

Technological globalisation

the cross cultural development and exchange of technology

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22

Commercial functions

various people enjoy technology and it has changed the way in which commercial is delivered. It is highly functional and can meet the market demographic of a particular place

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23

Entertainment functions

various medals has entertainment value

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24

Social norm functions

media serves to socialise us and help us pass along norm, values and believes to the next generation

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25

Life-changing functions

it helps as a venue for commercialisation and to socialise us

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26

Gate keeping

the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount

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27

Panoptic surveillance

a form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralised and the observed is never communicated with directly

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28

Cyberfeminsim

application to and promotion of feminism online

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29

Neo-luddites

those who see technology as a symbol of the coldness of modern life

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30

Technophiles

those who see technology as symbolising the potential for a brighter future

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31

Formal Education

The learning of academic facts and concepts

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32

Informal Education

Learning about cultural values, norms and expected behaviours through participation in a society

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33

Cultural Transmission

The way people learnt values, beliefs and social norms of their culture

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34

Universal access to education

The equal ability for all people to participate in education system

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35

Inclusion

It is a method involving complete immersion in a standard classroom

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36

Mainstreaming

It balances time in a special needs classroom with standard classroom education

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37

Manifest function of education

They include being socialised, social control, conformity to law and respect for authority, prepares someone for the workplace, provides methods allowing them to have upward social ability

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38

Latent function of education

Social networks for a person, ability to work in small groups and provided students a place to discuss various social issues.

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39

Sorting/ classification function of education

Classifying students based on academic merit/ potential

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40

Hidden curriculum

The type of non academic knowledge one learns through informal learning and cultural transmission

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41

Issues with IQ test

It can had a bias for texting cultural knowledge rather than actual intelligence. Students are placed into tracks. Tests are another way in which education does not provide equal activities

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42

Grade inflation

The idea that the achievement level associated with an A today sos lower than the achievement level related to A decades ago

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43

Labelling theory

Labelling of a person can impact the way in which they turn out, for example someone who has not performed well on standardised test can lead to the student being low achieving and making then less motivated

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44

Credentialism

The emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a particular skills, had attained certain level of education or has met particular job qualifications

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45

Mcdonalidisation

is the process by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate ore and more sectors of American society and rest of world. Characterisation of it is efficient, calculability (objectives are quantifiable), predictability ( the work and service provided are the same everywhere) and control, strict rules

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46

Mcdonalidlisaitno of education

theres s assigned numbers ( calculability), effiecneity ( ta, teaching at age) standardised curriculums (predictability) and control ( fear of failure, universities funding based on performance, allowing government to have control over universities)

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47

Standardised interview

Most useful when they know exactly what they want. It consist of a standard protocol / questionnaire that interview always reads the same way in the same order so the stimuli is same for all people

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48

In depth interview

Allows people to explain their experiences, attitudes, feelings and definitions of the situation on their own terms and in a way which is meaningful to them

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49

Close ended question

When there is only certain responses to the question

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50

Double barrelled question

questions which ask more than one thing at the same time

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51

Open coding

open code does not limit the codes

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52

Closed coding

Go through material related to each broad open code and look for specific aspect of a theme

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53

Research reflexivity

Researchers realising how they are interpreting data and how their own experiences and status impact the way they analyse the data

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54

In vivo coding

a form of qualitative data analysis that places emphasis on the actual spoken words of the participants

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55

environmental sociology

the study of interactions between human society and the physical environment

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56

anthropocentrism

the view that human beings are separate from and above the rest of nature

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57

human exemptionalism

the view that humans are exceptional but not exempt from the natural world

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58

new environmental paradigm

the view that human social action occur within an ecosystem that has its own processes and limits

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59

new ecological paradigm

emphasises that modern industrial society is beginning to exceed the limits of the environments

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60

triple bottom line

A company’s balance according to profit, people and planet

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61

anthropocene

a new geological era resulting from the consequences of human activities on the earth

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62

environmental racism

a form of discrimination against minority groups and people form poor countries who are subjected to a disproportionate share of environmental hazard and polluting industries

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63

dominant social paradigm

the capitalistic view supported by an ideology that legitimates the domination of nature for the material benefits of humans

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64

alternative environmental paradigm

advocates living in harmony with the environment and not dominating it

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65

sustainable development

the belief that economic development can occur without damaging the environment

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66

treadmill of production theory

capitalism’s insatiable quest for profits and economic expansion is at odds with protecting the environment

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67

ecological modernisation theory

technological and scientific discoveries will keep pace with human and environmental pressure and allow economic expansion without destroying the environment

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68

ecofeminism

an approach that investigates the domination of women and nature by men

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69

bioprospecting

occurs when companies search in poor or indigenous areas for new biological entities to exploit

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70

biocolonialism

occurs when western companies exploit indigenous areas and express a dominant- submissive relationship

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71

biopiracy

unauthorised appropriation of traditional biological and genetic knowledge, resources and practices  of indigenous people

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72

deep ecology

belief that unless we believe environmental issues become our issue, very little can be accomplished

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73

War on drugs

a period in the 1970s in the us trying criminalise drugs

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74

deviance

a violation of contextual, cultural or social norms

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75

crime

a behaviour that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions

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76

moral entrepreneurs

an. Individual or group who in the service of their own interest, publicises and problematise wrongdoing and has the power to create and enforce rules to penalise wrongdoing

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77

moral panic

a expanding cycle of deviance, media generate public fears and police repression

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78

sanctionshe means of enforcing rules

the means of enforcing rules

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79

positive sanctions

rewards for conforming to norms

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80

Negative sanctions

punishment for violating norms

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81

informal sections

such as the reactions you may get for picking your nose

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82

formal sanctions

ways to officially recognise and enforced arms violation

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83

social disorganisation theory

theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and absence of social control

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84

strain theory

a throw which addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and social acceptable means to reach these goals

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85

crimes of accommodation

crimes committed as ways in which individuals cope with conditions of oppression and inequality

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86

street cirme

crime committed by average people against other people or organisations, usually in public spaces

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87

white collar crime

crimes committed by high status / privileged member of society

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88

doubly deviant

women who break both laws and gender norms

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89

secondary victimisation

after an initial victimisation, secondary victimisation is brought upon through criminal justice system

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90

differential association theory

individuals learn deviant behaviour from those close to them who provide models of and opportunity of deviance

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91

labelling theory

the ascribing of a deviant behaviour to an individual by a member of society

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92

Primary deviance

a violation of norms that does not result in ant long term effects n the individuals self image or interactions with others

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93

Secondary deviance

a change in a persons self concept and behaviour after is or her actions are labelled as deviant by a member of society

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94

master status

a label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual

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95

WHO definition of health

a sate of complete physical, metal and social well being and not ,merely the absence of ideas

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96

medical sociology:

the systematic study of how humans manage issue of health and illness, disease and disorders and health care for both the sick and the healthy

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97

Cultural meaning of illness

culture determines which illnesses are stigmatised and which is not

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98

stigmatisation of illness

when people are discriminated against because of illnesses and suffers are sometimes shunned due to illness/ disability

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99

contested illnesses

illnesses that are questioned or considered questionable by some medical professionals

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100

social construction of illness experience

deals with issues like how some patents control the manner in which they reveal their disease and lifestyle adaptations

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