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THE MONROE DOCTRINE

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1

THE MONROE DOCTRINE

1823, Introduced by President Monroe, meant that America would not get involved in European Affairs.

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2

HOMESTEAD ACT

1862, Signed by Lincoln, this act aimed to encourage the development of the American West and economic growth. It provided 160 acres of federal land to anyone who was willing to farm the land.

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3

EMANCIPATION ACT

1863, All slaves in the US were formally freed

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4

LINCOLN’S TEN PERCENT PLAN

1864, A reconstruction program that would allow Confederate states to establish new state governments after 10 percent of their male population took loyalty oaths and the states recognized the permanent freedom of formerly enslaved people.

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5

WADE DAVIS BILL

1864, required that 50% of all voters in the Confederate states, as opposed to Lincoln's proposed 10%, must pledge allegiance to the Union before reunification. Along with the loyalty pledge, the Bill would abolish slavery within the rebel states.

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6

SAND CREEK MASSACRE

1864, US army attack on peaceful native americans, killing hundreds of women, men and children. Inspired by the tension between those who had lived on the plains for years and the American expansionism.

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7

CIVIL WAR ENDED

1865, The confederate army surrendered and therefore lost to the Union.

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8

FREEDMEN'S BUREAU ACT CREATED

1865, Aimed to provide aid for displaced southerners and newly freed African Americans

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9

LINCOLN ASSASSINATED

APRIL 1865, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a confederate sympathiser shortly after the surrender of the confederate troops.

Booth shouted “Sic Semper Tyrannis!” - translated ‘thus always to tyrants’

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10

THE LOST CAUSE IDEA

1860s, A southern portrayal of an Idyllic pre war south that. Glorifies the south and allows justification of their behaviours such as racism and slavery.

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11

ANDREW JOHNSON PRESIDENCY

1865-1869,

  • Was saved by 1 vote for impeachment

  • Congress hated him because both houses were radical republican

  • He was lenient on the south, felt states should make their own decisions

  • Vetoed the civil rights act (to fix the black codes) but this was overturned

Not a prestigious or powerful president

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12

13TH AMENDMENT

1865, Abolished slavery

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13

THE BLACK CODES

1865-66, The South passed a series of laws known as the Black Codes;

  • Unemployed Af-Ams could be forced to work for white employers

  • Af-Am children could be forced into working on plantations

  • Af-Ams could be prevented from receiving an education

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14

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT

1866, Declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, "without distinction of race or colour, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude." This bill was vetoed by Johnson but overturned by Congress.

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15

MIDTERM ELECTIONS OF 1866

1866, Massively destroyed Johnson’s popularity and lessened his decision making abilities - meaning he lost control of the process of reconstruction. Gives congress more power and confidence to push more bills/amendments

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16

KKK WAS SET UP

1866, Set up by a group of confederate veterans who made it originally as a secret society in Tennessee

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17

14TH AMENDMENT

1866, Granted US citizens equal protection under the law

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18

PURCHASE OF ALASKA

1867, The US bought Alaska from Russia after they decided it was too remote and difficult to defend. They bought it to prevent Britain from gaining this land.

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19

MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION ACT

1867, Complex negotiations between moderates and Radical Republicans → the President vetoing the bill, but Congress overrode the veto! Congress tied it to the acceptance of the 14th Amendment

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The Radicals wanted the Act to go even further eg. redistributing land to the ex slaves, but Johnson deliberately tried to sabotage it by appointing conservative military officers. Then Congress moves to prevent his actions! This Act sparks defiance in the South eg: KKK and race riots in the case

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20

COMMAND OF THE ARMY ACT

1867, Required Johnson to issue a;; military orders through the General of the Army (at the time, Grant) instead of making the decision himself. This took away a major part of the presidential power.

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21

TENURE OF OFFICE ACT

1867, Required consent of the senate for the President to remove an office holder - however Johnson goes against this and fires Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, which led to his impeachment

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22

ATTEMPTED IMPEACHMENT OF JOHNSON

1868, Attempted impeachment due to his chaotic presidency but the final straw was because he fired an official who was protected under the Tenure of Office Act.

He escaped impeachment by one vote

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23

14TH AMENDMENT

1868, Right to citizenship

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24

ULYSSES GRANT PRESIDENCY

1869-1877, Throat cancer for spitting too many fax

  • Grant was using patronage however his friends were directly involved with the whiskey ring scandal and thus the blame was put on Grant,

Prestigious president because of his image as a war general

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25

15TH AMENDMENT

1870, Made it unconstitutional to ban someone from voting based on race

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26

FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD OPENED

1869, Had a huge impact on the West. It encouraged further settlement in the West as it made travelling their cheaper and easier

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27

CREATION + ENFORCEMENT OF KKK ACTS

1870-71,

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28

PANIC OF 1873

1873, The panic started with a problem in Europe, when the stock market crashed. Investors began to sell off the investments they had in American projects, particularly railroads.

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29

COLFAX MASSACRE

1873, An estimated 62–153 black militia men were murdered while surrendering to a mob of former Confederate soldiers and members of the Ku Klux Klan.

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30

WHISKEY RING SCANDAL

1875, A scandal involving the diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors.

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31

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT

1875, The bill guaranteed all citizens, regardless of colour, access to accommodations, theatres, public schools, churches, and cemeteries

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32

CONTESTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

1876, Between Hayes and Tilden

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33

THE GREAT SIOUX WAR

1876, Was a series of battles and negotiations that occurred in 1876 and 1877 in an alliance of Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne against the United States. The cause of the war was the desire of the US government to obtain ownership of the Black Hills.

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34

BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN

1876, The most significant battle of the Great Sioux War, where the natives beat the US army

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35

RUTHERFORD HAYES PRESIDENCY

1877-1881, Seen as a weak president - he got the presidency through a rubbish deal - affected the prestige of the presidency. He began the gilded age of presidents

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36

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ISSUES

1877, After reconstruction, the big issue was civil service reform due to the strength of meritocracy and nepotism within the civil service - divided the presidents of this period

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37

THE GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE

1877, The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the country's first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strike in the nation's history. Shut down by federal troops, sent by Hayes

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38

‘THE COMPROMISE OF 1877’

1877, An informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election between Hayes and Tilden.

It awarded the presidency to Hayes in exchange for the end of reconstruction in the South.

This also meant the union troops were taken out of the South

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39

END OF RECONSTRUCTION

1877, The end of the period of reconstruction after the Civil War, the end marked by the Compromise of 1877.

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40

FARMERS ALLIANCE EMERGED

1877, Agricultural discontent in the face of political dominance by the agricultural North meant that farmers grouped together to combat this.

This would later become the populist party.

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41

THE GILDED AGE

1877-1890, Was a period of industrialisation and rapid economic growth that was categorised by the emergence of overly wealthy individuals (robber barons). This age is associated with political corruption

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42

JAMES GARFIELD PRESIDENCY

1881, Assassinated before he could have any kind of presidential impact.

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43

CHESTER ARTHUR PRESIDENCY

1881-1885, Garfield's vice president, okay as president - he was invested in reforming the civil service. Very average.

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44

THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT

1882, An act that prohibited all immigration of Chinese labourers for 10 years - excluding a few professions. This was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States based on race.

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45

THE PENDLETON ACT (CIVIL SERVICE REFORM)

1883, The Act stated that government jobs be based on a meritocracy and that government employees be selected through competitive exams. This led to the creation of the Civil Service Commision and was designed to avoid preferential or bias treatment

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46

GROVER CLEVELAND PRESIDENCY

1885-1889,

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47

SETTING UP THE AFL

1885, American Federation of Labour.

The creation of the AFL by several workers union groups marked the beginning of the labour movements in the USA

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48

INTERSTATE COMMISSION ACT

1887, Meant railroad companies had to publish their rates and stop offering favouritism to big businessmen. However the commission had no power to actually regulate these rates

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49

THE DAWES ACT

1887, This Act regulated land rights on tribal territories (reservation lands), in an aim to protect Native American property rights. Overall successful

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50

JIM CROW LAWS

1887-1891, Jim Crow laws authorised segregation in all public facilities in the former confederate states (typically southern). De Jure segregation.

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51

CLOSING THE FRONTIER

1890,

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52

BENJAMIN HARRISON PRESIDENCY

1889-1893,

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53

THE BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE

1890, The slaughter of approximately 150–300 Lakota Indians by United States Army troops in the area of Wounded Knee Creek in southwestern South Dakota. The massacre was the climax of the U.S. Army's late 19th-century efforts to repress the Plains Indians.

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54

THE END OF THE FRONTIER

1890, America had discovered all the land there was to find

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55

POPULIST PARTY CREATED

1892, Inspired by the earlier Farmers Alliance, later was ended after the 1896 election as it highlighted America could not have a third political party so the republicans and democrats adopted a lot of the populist demands.

They stood as the party of the people and were largely supported by small scale farmers, industrial workers and the west. They drew from rage regarding the increases of big business.

They supported bimetallism and prohibition and focused on economic issues - rather than race issues

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56

THE ‘TURNER ESSAY’

1893, AKA, the ‘Frontier Thesis’

The United States no longer had a clear line of frontier— the nation had filled up its continental borders. Thus, a long period of American expansion had come to a close, but not without leaving permanent marks on the American character.

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57

ANTI-SALOON LEAGUE SET UP

1893, An organisation that lobbied for prohibition

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58

THE DEPRESSION OF 1893

1893, Was a national economic crisis set off by the collapse of two of the country's largest employers, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and the National Cordage Company

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59

GROVER CLEVELAND PRESIDENCY

1893-1897, During his second term, he let the robber barons take control of the government and economy. Did not handle the economic issues such as bimetallism well.

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60

ATLANTA COMPROMISE

1895, was the first speech given by an African American to a racially-mixed audience in the South → Washington asked whites to trust Blacks and provide them with opportunities so that both races could advance in industry and agriculture.

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61

PLESSY V FERGUSON

1896, Was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that racial segregation laws did not violate the U.S. Constitution as long as the facilities for each race were equal in quality, a doctrine that came to be known as "separate but equal"

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62

1896 ELECTION

1896, Dramatic election run between William Mckinley and Democrat, Populist William Jennings Bryan.

The first of modern election campaigns with Mark Hanna funding Mckinley’s campaign - leading to his win

Populists lost as they never gained the support of the deep south or big business or the urban workers

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63

‘CROSS OF GOLD’ SPEECH

1896, Famous speech against use of the Gold standard in America - given by William Jennings Bryan. Very efficient speech considering the detriments to small scale farmers.

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64

WILLIAM MCKINLEY PRESIDENCY

1897-1901, Elevated the presidency to something more modern than what it was before, active president made it more economic

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65

CIVIL WAR IN SAMOA

1898, Was centred around whether Malietoa Laupepa or Mata'afa Iosefo should be king. The German military intervened on numerous occasions, and tensions existed between the Germans and the US, as both wanted to further interests in Samoa.

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66

US ANNEXED HAWAII

1898, Due to the perceived threat of the Japanese invasion. Waves of Japanese came to the islands in increasing numbers to work in the sugar trade. U.S. military leaders feared potential Japanese occupation of the islands and created a strategic naval base in the centre of the Pacific

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67

THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR

1898, Was a conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America.

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68

TREATY OF PARIS

1898, Commissioners from the United States and Spain met in Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war after six months of hostilities.

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69

THE OPEN DOOR POLICY

1899, It called for protection of equal privileges for all countries trading with China and for the support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.

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70

THEODORE ROOSEVELT PRESIDENCY

1901-1909, The prestige and power of the presidency rises massively during his presidency, increase in bully pulpit methods

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71

ANTHRACITE COAL STRIKE

1902, A strike that caused the working class to root for T Roosevelt as he brought the strikers and employers to the white house to arbitrate a deal between them.

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72

PLATT AMENDMENT

1903, The Platt Amendment was a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.

This basically means that they took over control of Cuban politics and made cuba's economy  massively dependant on the US

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73

ELKINS ACT

1903, Gave the interstate commerce commission the authority to impose heavy fines on railroad companies who gave rebates to big businesses

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74

THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY

1904, An extension of the Monroe Doctrine that sanctioned US armed intervention in Latin America when felt necessary to prevent financial or political collapse.

Basically was to justify imperialism

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75

HEPBURN ACT

1906, Gave interstate commerce commission the power to set maximum railroad rates

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76

DILLINGHAM COMMISSION

1907, Commissions into the patterns of immigration in the US

Concluded there were desirable (western) and undesirable immigrants - the ideas led to public acceptance of the future laws to effectively limit/end immigration

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77

ROOT-TAKAHIRA AGREEMENT

1908, The Root–Takahira Agreement was a major 1908 agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan to avoid war - basically deciding to respect certain pacific policies

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78

WILLIAM TAFT PRESIDENCY

1909-1913, Taft doesnt enjoy the president or the politics of the whitehouse, he is a law man. Difficult relationship with Teddy

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79

16TH AMENDMENT

1913, Introduction of income tax - big deal !

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80

17TH AMENDMENT

1913, Allowed direct election of senators

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81

WOODROW WILSON PRESIDENCY

1913-1921, Mixed effect on the presidency, he was a new type of president with peaceful ideology and guided US post ww1. 14 points for WWI → foreign policy. He was an intellecurt not a southerner - even though he was, his prestige has suffered a lot. Super racist - but  contemporaries didn't see that - just us, encourages segregation and his race relations was terrible.

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82

FEDERAL RESERVE ACT

1913, This created a central banking system for the first time in America, this allowed federal control of the US monetary supply making it easier to address inflation and deflation

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83

OPENING OF PANAMA CANAL

1914, The USA had supported the building of the canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean

  • Encouraged by President Roosevelt, the rights were taken over to build the canal.

  • Columbia demanded $25 million to build the canal, but President Roosevelt refused.

  • In 1903, the Panamanians staged a national revolt for independence from the rule of Colombia

  • This was supported by the USA, who sent a regime in support of the cause

  • Panama achieved independence and the US offered $10 million for a strip of land

The canal was completed in 1914.

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84

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION

1914, The Act was signed into law by US President Woodrow Wilson in 1914 and outlaws unfair methods of competition and unfair acts or practices that affect commerce.

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85

CLAYTON ANTI-TRUST ACT

1914, prevented unfair methods of competition.

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86

WORLD WAR 1

1914-1918, Threat of americans so got involved

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87

US NEUTRALITY/ISOLATIONISM

1914-1917, America said NO to the big fight (briefly)

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88

UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE

1915, Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking all the ships en route to Britain → hopes to starve the british of food and supplies but sinked the Lusitania with 128 Americans on it even though Germans agreed not to attack America

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89

LUSITANIA SUNK

1915, A British ship sunk by German U-boats that killed 128 Americans, this was the start of changing opinions on neutrality.

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90

‘BLACK TOMS MUNITION PLANT’ EXPLOSION

1916, A munitions plant in Jersey that mysteriously exploded and created lots of expensive damage, and this was blamed on German saboteurs (possibly due to the anti-German rhetoric at the time)

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91

1917

RESUMPTION OF  UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE

1917, In 1916, Wilson tells Germany to stop with USW in order to stop a diplomatic break with the USA and they agree but in 1917, they resume it

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92

THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM

1917, This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States, The US felt the need to declare war in 1917

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93

US JOINS WW1

1917 (APRIL), Zimmerman Telegram, Resumption of Unrestricted Sumbarmaine Warfare - killing more americans, the Lustinana,

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94

WILSON’S ‘FOURTEEN POINTS’

1918, Was used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I when deciding the terms of the Treaty of Versailles

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95

TREATY OF VERSAILLES + LON

1919, The treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement that ended the first world war, with negotiations led by Woodrow Wilson, George Clemenceu and David Lloyd George.

The League of Nations was set up from this and aimed to settle international disputes…

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96

18TH AMENDMENT

1919, Enforced Prohibition

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97

SENATE DID NOT APPROVE TREATY

1920, …however at the last minute the US senate voted not to be a part of the LON

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98

19TH AMENDMENT

1920, Made it unconstitutional to ban someone from voting based on sex

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99

THE VOLSTEAD ACT

1920, The Volstead Act, passed nine months after the 19th amendment, provided for the enforcement of prohibition, including the creation of a special unit of the Treasury Department.

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100

AGE OF CAR INDUSTRY

1920s, Easy Credit and Hire Purchase allows the average American to afford luxury goods such as cars and this leads to Suburbanisation and road building → people moving out of the cities and more jobs are created through road building

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