morphology

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abessive case

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371 Terms

1

abessive case

without, lacking

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2

ablative case

(away) from

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3

absolute case

marks both subject of intransitive verb and object of transitive verb

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4

acceptability judgement

native speaker’s assessment of whether a word/sentence in possible in that language

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5

accusative case

marks direct object

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6

active voice

semantic agent is syntactic subject

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7

actual (usual) word

lexeme familiar to most speakers

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8

adjunct

a participant in an event that’s optionally expressed

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9

adposition

refers collectively to prepositions and postpositions

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10

affirmative mood

indicates factuality of argument

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11

affix

morpheme that has to attach to base and can’t occur alone

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12

affixation

operation of stringing together a base affix

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13

agent

semantic role; instigator of an action

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14

agentive adjective

deverbal adjective denoting action performed by modified noun (typing monkey)

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15

agent noun

deverbal noun refers to agent participant of action (drinker)

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16

agglutinative language

almost all words are formed by concatenation of morphemes

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17

agreement

syntactic relation requiring related constituents to show same marking for certain inflection values

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18

allative case

motion towards, onto

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19

allomorph (morpheme alternant)

2 roots/morphological patterns that express same meaning and occur in complementary distribution

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20

alphabetism

abbreviation consisting of initial letters read with letter’s alphabet values (CD)

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21

alternation

differences in pronunciation between 2 (+) phonological allomorphs

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22

analogical extension

an analogical change in which an existing morphological pattern is applied to a new or different lexeme

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23

(analogical) levelling

an analogical change in which a word-form is changed based on another word-form belonging to the same lexeme

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24

analogy (analogical change)

use of similar existing words as models in the modification and creation of words

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25

analytic language

language that uses little morphology

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26

animacy

semantic property of nouns that denotes whether the noun is a living (sentient) thing

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27

anticausative

event changing operation signaling that there’s no cause and no agent role in derived event structure

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28

antipassive

function changing operation that backgrounds the patient

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29

aorist (tense)

indicates occurrence of action in past, w/o indicating if action is completed

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30

appositional compound

compound denoting entity that fulfills several descriptions simultaneously (student worker)

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31

argument

semantic role assigned to a noun by the verb

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32

argument inheritance

deverbal derived word exhibits this when its argument (and function) structure match and are dependent upon the argument/function structure of the verbal base from which it’s derived

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33

aspect

inflectional feature of verbs having to do with the internal temporal constituency of an event (perfective, imperfective etc)

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34

attenuative adjective

deadjectival adjective denoting a reduced degree of the base (bluish)

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35

augmentative noun

denominal noun denoting larger (or otherwise pragmatically special) version of base noun

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36

automatic alternation

a purely phonologically conditioned sound alternation

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37

auxiliary

verb that co-occurs with a main verb in phrase to indicate values of verbal features like tense or mood

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38

back-formation

formation of a shorter, simpler word from a longer word that’s perceived as morphologically complex

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39

base

element to which a morphological operation applies

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40

base modification

umbrella term for morphological operations that change the pronunciation of part of the base, usually w/o adding segmentable material

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41

blend

lexeme whose stem was created by combining parts of 2 other lexeme stems (smog)

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42

(synonymy) blocking

when the application of a productive rule is pre-empted by an existing word w/same meaning

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43

bound form

a word-form or affix that is prosodically dependent on its host and can’t stand on its own in a variety of ways

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44

bound stem

base that’s not a word-form by itself and only occurs in combination with another morpheme

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45

case

inflectional feature that serves to code noun phrase’s semantic role

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46

categorial periphrasis

when a given inflectional value is always expressed by a periphrastic (multi-word) expression

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47

category-conditioned degree of productivity

a measure of productivity, ratio of number of hapax legomena with a given morphological pattern to total sum token frequency of all word-forms with that pattern

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48

causative

event-changing operation referring to an event that is caused by version of the base event

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49

causative verb

deverbal verb denoting action that has caused the action represented by the base verb to occur

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50

cell

position in a paradigm defined by the possible combos of inflectional values

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51

circumfix

discontinuous affix occurring on both sides of base

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52

citation form

word-form used by convention to refer to a lexeme (like when listing a lexeme in a dictionary)

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53

classifier

morpheme (usually lexical stem) used to classify noun as belonging to a semantically based group

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54

clipping

method of forming a shortened word that doesn’t differ semantically from a longer version

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55

clitic

bound word-form

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56

clitic group

expression formed by 1 or more clitics and the host

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57

coalescence

diachronic change whereby 2 formerly free syntactic elements turn into one word-form

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58

combinatory potential (subcategorization frame)

info in a lexical entry about the surrounding elements with which a word/morpheme can/must combine

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59

combining form

bound stem that only occurs in a compound

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60

competence

speaker’s knowledge of linguistic system

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61

complementary distribution

when 2 morphs occur in non-overlapping environments

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62

complex event noun

deverbal noun referring to event/action itself and inherits the base verb’s agreement structure

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63

complex word

word that is one of a group of words showing systematic covariation in form and meaning (morphological structure)

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64

complexity based ordering

idea that restrictions on affix order are emergent from the structure of the lexicon-- affixes that are more likely to be stored in lexicon together with their stems must occur closer to the root than affixes that are likely to be decomposed

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65

compositional meaning

meaning of a complex word is equivalent to the sum of the meanings of its component morphemes

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66

compound (lexeme)

complex lexeme made of more than one lexeme stem

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67

compounding

formation of compounds

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68

concatenate operation

consists of stringing morphemes together (affixation/compounding)

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69

conceptual structure (event structure)

formal semantic decomposition of a verb’s meaning

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70

concrete noun

deverbal noun that’s similar to an event noun, but doesn’t refer to the event/action itself but refers to the product of the action, a group of people associated w/action, etc

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71

conditional mood

hypothetical, unrealized action

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72

conditioning

environments in which different allomorphs of same morpheme can occur

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73

conjugation

inflection class of a verb/verb inflection in general

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74

constituent

subgrouping within the structure of a word/sentence

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75

contextual inflection

part of inflectional morphology consisting of feature that are assigned to a word bc of the syntactic context in which it appears (result of agreement/government)

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76

continuative aspect

indicates an ongoing action

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77

continuum approach

hypothesis according to which morphological patterns are understood as lying on a continuum (from canonical inflection to canonical derivation, no sharp boundaries between types)

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78

controller (of agreement)

in syntax, the constituent whose properties determine the properties of the agreeing constituent (when a noun determines gender property of an adjective that agrees w/it, the noun is the controller)

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79

converb

a verb-form that is used for adverbial subordination

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80

conversion

morphological pattern in which pronunciation of base doesn’t change

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81

coordination ellipsis

test for word status, 1 or 2 identical elements in a coordinated phrase can usually be deleted, but a compound member can’t be deleted in this way

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82

coordinative (dvandva) compound

refers to multiple referents corresponding to the compound members (elun-ai, adult and child, elun adult ai child)

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83

coreferential

two nouns that refer to the same entity

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84

count noun

can refer to individual entities and can have both singular and plural forms

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85

creativity

creation of neologisms by unproductive patterns

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86

cross-formation

formation of a complex word from a base that’s complex already, by removing part of the base

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87

cumulative expression (fusion)

expression of multiple morphological meanings simultaneously by one un-analyzable element

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88

dative case

indicates indirect object of a verb

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89

deadjectival

formation whose base is an adjective

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90

declarative mood

indicates the preposition expressed is an unqualified statement of fact

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91

declension

inflection case of a noun/noun inflection in general

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92

decomposition route

means of lexical access in which a complex word is broken up into component morphemes, and info about the word is retrieved through the morphemes’ lexical entries

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93

default route

rule that applies in general case, no other more specific rules apply

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94

defective

a lexeme with some empty cells (of its inflectional paradigm), some inflectional meanings it can’t express

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95

definite

inflectional value of feature definiteness

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96

degree

inflectional feature of adjectives having to do w/comparison of gradable properties (comparative, superlative)

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97

degree of exhaustion

measure of productivity; ratio of words exhibiting a given morphological pattern to all words in the domain of that pattern

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98

degree of generalization (profitability)

measure of productivity; type of frequency of the relevant morphological pattern

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99

denominal

formation whose base is a noun

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100

dependent

element in a compound/syntactic phrase that modifies the head

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