NTR 222 Exam 1

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158 Terms

1

Enriched

adding back a nutrient that was taken out with refining/processing

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Several scientific disciplines that contribute to the science of nutrition

biochemistry

biology

physiology

anatomy

psychology

sociology

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Six classification of nutrients

vitamins

minerals

water

protein

fat

carbohydrates

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MInerals

the most basic level of nutrients - elements

important energy releasers

inorganic

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Water

the medium in which biochemical reactions occur

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Vitamins

important energy releasers (don't give energy but help you release energy)

contain carbon

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Organic nutrients

contain carbon

carbohydrates

lipids

proteins

vitamins

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Inorganic nutrients

do not contain carbon

minerals

water

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9

The daily values are used

on food labels to inform consumers about how much of a nutrient the food provides

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If a food label states that a serving of the food has 32g of carbohydrates, how many calories of carbohydrates are in the food?

128 calories

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Food labels must clearly show information about

potential food allergens

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The Adequate Daily Intake for a nutrient is

an alternative to an RDA and is set when there is not enough data to set a definitive recommendation

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A food label states "Iron 15%." The manufacturer could claim that this food:

is a good source of iron

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A health professional who is an expert in nutrition is a:

registered dietitian

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A food label states that a food has 15 grams of protein. How many protein calories does that equal?

60 protein calories

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The health claims on the front of a label, such as "heart healthy," are:

strictly regulated by the FDA so the food must meet certain standards and use specific wording

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The RDA's for nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc are set at the:

98th percentile of the population's needs to ensure that the recommendations cover the majority of the population

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An example of an energy nutrient is:

protein

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The leading cause of death in the United States is:

heart disease

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Fortified

adding a nutrient that wasn't there to begin with

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Energy nutrients

are calories and contain energy

carbohydrates

fat

protein

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Carbohydrates calorie per gram

4 cal/g

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Fat calorie per gram

9 cal/g

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Protein calorie per gram

4 cal/g

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Non-energy

water

vitamins

minerals

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Macro-nutrients

typically energy nutrients, nutrients needed in large amounts

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Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)

based on very specific demographics (age, gender, ethnicity)

<p>based on very specific demographics (age, gender, ethnicity)</p>
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Nutrient RDA

set at the 98th percentile so that 98% of the population is covered (set way above the average need)

you can go above the RDA for almost all nutrients without experiencing toxic symptoms

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Energy RDA

set at the average (2,000 calories)

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Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)

the average daily requirement for nutrient x

different for everybody

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Adequate Intakes (AI)

a nutrient will have this when the data on that nutrient is not conclusive (replaces the RDA)

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Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

adequate energy and nutrient ranges

45-65% kcalories from carbohydrate

20-35% kcalories from fat

10-35% kcalories from protein

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Calculate the number of calories in food servings given the grams of carbohydrate, fat, and protein

multiply number of grams by the energy content of each nutrient

Carbohydrates - 4 cal/g

Protein - 4 cal/g

Fat - 9 cal/g

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Nutrient density

measures the nutrient content of a food with regards to the calorie content

the most nutrient for the least amount of calories

divide amount of nutrient by calories

<p>measures the nutrient content of a food with regards to the calorie content</p><p>the most nutrient for the least amount of calories</p><p>divide amount of nutrient by calories</p>
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Reasons that people eat the way they do

taste

time convenience

economics

tradition/culture

emotions

habit

religion

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Disease related to nutrition

heart disease

some cancers

stroke

diabetes

kidney disease

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Dietary guidlines

purpose: provide advice for ages 2+ including those at increased risk of chronic disease

produced by: USA & HHS

Updated every 5 years

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Components required on food labels

nutrition facts

allergy contents

added trans fat

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Daily value

one number chosen from RDAs of how much you should limit or need a specific nutrient

based on the percentage of the group (the daily value for fat in a 2,000 calorie diet is 30%)

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Calculate the daily value for a person

Calculate how much the nutrient should make up in a specific calorie diet (30% of a 2000 calorie diet is 600 calories)

Divide the number of calories by the number of calories/gram found in the nutrient (600 calories/ 9 calories per gram for fat = 66.6 grams)

How many grams of the nutrient you are getting from this food is your daily value on the label (3 grams of fat out of 65 = a daily value of 4.6% of 5%)

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Requirements to market as "healthy"

low in total fat, sat fat, cholesterol, and sodium

must have at least 10% daily value for at least one of the following:

- vitamin A

- vitamin C

- iron

- calcium

- protein

- fiber

*jelly bean rule

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Jelly bean rule

jelly beans are just sugar so low in fat and could be classified healthy if not for the 10% DV rule

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Requirements to be marketed "low fat"

3g or less per serving

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Requirements to be marketed "low saturated fat"

one gram or less per serving and less than 0.5g of trans fat

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Requirements to be marketed "low cholesterol"

less than 20mg per serving AND less than 2g saturated and trans fat combines

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Requirements to be marketed "low calorie"

40 calories or less per serving

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Requirements to be marketed "low sodium"

140 mg or less per serving

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Requirements to be marketed "trans fat free"

less than 0.5g of trans fat and less than 0.5g of saturated fat per serving

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Requirements to be marketed "high in ___ or excellent source of ___"

20+% of the DV

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Requirements to be marketed "good source of ___"

10-19% of the DV

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Requirements to be marketed "high in fiber"

at least 5g per serving

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Health claim requirements: soluble fiber & heart disease

low fat, sat fat, cholesterol AND at least 0.6g soluble fiber

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Health claim requirements: heart healthy

low in saturated fat and cholesterol

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Health claim requirements: hypertension

low sodium

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Health claim requirements: cancer & fiber

must be low in fat and a good source of fiber

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Health claim requirements: cancer & fruits and vegetables

low fat

good source of vitamin A, vitamin C, or fiber

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Health claim requirements: osteoporosis

at least 20% DV for calcium

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New food label

will show amounts of nutrient

changed which key nutrients are shown (potassium)

calories in big font

shows added sugars

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The first step in conducting research is:

make an observation and ask a question

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Social bias refers to the:

Inaccuracies in self-reported data due to the desire to impress the researcher

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The characteristic of a clinical trial that allows the researchers to draw cause and effect conclusions is that:

The participants in a clinical trial have been randomly assigned to the control or the experimental (intervention) group

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An example of a demographic variable is:

marital status

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One of the limitations to a food frequency questionnaire is that:

It is hard for people to remember what they ate over days, weeks, and months.

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Methods of assessing dietary intake

Food Frequency Questionnaires

24 Hour Recall

Food Record/Diary

Feeding Studies

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Food Frequency Questionnaries

hard to quantify nutrients

social & recall bias

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Social bias

changing your answers to impress/please the researcher

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Recall bias

as more time passes accuracy decreases

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24 Hour Recall

usually delivered by a technician or dietitian (have to be careful with how you ask questions)

unusual days with non-typical diets

interviewer/observer, recall, social bias

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Food Record/Diary

social bias

not as much recall bias if you record as you eat

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Observational (epidemiological) studies

observing and gathering data on what people are doing in the natural lives

NO treatment or intervention

Participants put themselves into different groups naturally (disease, etc.)

Can control for certain variables, can't control for unknowns

CANNOT show cause and effect

CAN show correlation or association

includes cross-sectional, case controlled, and longitudinal cohort studies

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Cross-sectional study

looking at people at one point in time

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Cast controlled study

looking at people with a certain behavior or disease and comparing them to a control group

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Randomized clinical trial

randomization of subjects into control and intervention groups

receive treatment or intervention

can draw cause-and-effect conclusions

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Confounders

other explanations for what we are seeing - could something else be playing in a result?

(keeps researchers from making cause and effect conclusions)

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Relative risk/benefit

the risk doubled

tends to exaggerate

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Absolute risk

takes the original risk into account and takes the difference

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Longitudinal cohort study

observing people over a long period of time

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Statistical significance

the differences observed are not due to chance (95% it was not due to chance)

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Clinical significance

are the results meaningful, will it make a difference?

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Scientific method

1. observation and question

2. hypothesis and prediction

3. experiment

4. results and interpretations

5. repeat or discard

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Theory

well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world AFTER REPEATED OBSERVATION AND TESTING

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Hypothesis

a specific, testable prediction

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Bias

an error that happens during research

caused by study design, how we measured our data, carlesness, human biases

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Types of research studies (from least to most pertinent)

basic research (bench & animal)

human research

observational/epidemiological

randomized clinical trial

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Well done study components

randomized in a clinical trial

groups must be similar

placebos

double blind

large sample size

correlations, causes, replication, peer review

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Double blind

the researcher and participants don't know who is in what group

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Sampling error

error due to the impossibility of studying an entire population

can be reduced by:

- large sample size

- unbiased/random sampling

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Avoiding wheat products and other products that contain the wheat protein gluten is necessary for

People with Celiac disease and possibly people with gluten sensitivity.

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Honey should not be given to babies because:

It may contain botulism spores and could infect the baby with this deadly food-borne illness.

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Two hormones responsible for raising serum glucose when levels are low are:

glucagon and epinephrine

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The risk of diabetes in the United States is highest for:

African-American men

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Diabetes that occurs in some women (gestational diabetes):

Often disappears with delivery.

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93

Glycogen stores about ______________ calories in the _______________.

2000; liver and muscles

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Excessive fiber intake of:

50 grams or higher a day can decrease the absorption of some minerals such as calcium and iron.

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People who want to lower their cholesterol may be advise to eat more foods high in:

Soluble fiber like oatmeal and fruits.

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A person who is lactose intolerant:

Has a reduced ability to digest the carbohydrate in milk but may be able to eat cheese and yogurt and small amounts of milk.

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People with type 1 diabetes:

Are sometimes underweight at the time of diagnosis due to a lack of glucose uptake in the body's cells.

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People with type 2 diabetes:

May be able to control their blood glucose through diet and exercise alone.

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The glycemic index is based on the concept that:

Different carbohydrate foods increase blood sugar and thus insulin secretion at different level.

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Simple carbohydrates

monosaccharides

disaccharides

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