All Unit 1 Higher Biology

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genomic sequencing

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Biology

109 Terms

1

genomic sequencing

Determining the sequence of nucleotide bases for individual genes and entire genomes

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genomics

the study of genomes

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Bioinformatics

use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data

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Phylogenetics

the analysis of evolutionary, or ancestral, relationships

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phylogentic tree

Evolutionary history of a group of organisms represented in a branching diagram; represents hypothesis about evolutionary relationships

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molecular clock

Model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently

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3 domains of life

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarotes

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Pharmacogenetics

Area of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response.

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personal genomics

the branch of genomics focused on sequencing individual genomes

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Exons

Coding segments of DNA.

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Introns

Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

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tRNA (transfer RNA)

type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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mRNA

messenger RNA carries a copy of the gene from the nucleus to the ribosome

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rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

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codon

3 base code in DNA or RNA

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anti-condon

A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.

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The difference between DNA and RNA

DNA has deoxyribose, thymine, and is double stranded

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RNA is made up of ribose, uracil, and is single stranded

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RNA splicing

The process of intron removal from the primary transcript.

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Transcription

synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template

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Translation

Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

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protein structure

Long chains of amino acids joined to each other by peptide bonds

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Phyenotype

the appearance due to the order of genes

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tRNA

Single strand of RNA which folds due to base pairing to form this unusual shape. It has a triplet anti-codon site and an attachment site for a specific amino acid.

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Uracil

replaces thymine in RNA

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Non-coding regions

introns

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Exons are spliced to form

Mature mRNA

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Primary transcription

The initial rna transcript with itrons and exons

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Peptide bonds

Bonds between amino acids

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start codon

Aug

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stop codon

codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation

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alternative splicing

one gene can code for more than one protein

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Double helix

The shape of a DNA molecule

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34

hydrogen bonds

Weak bonds that connect the two strands together at the base pairings.

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35

3'

the three prime end (the bottom)

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5'

the five prime end (at the top)

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Sugar phosphate

Make up the backbone of DNA or RNA.

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Deoxyribose

A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

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Nuclotide

the basic unit of DNA

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40

Adinine Pairs With

Thymine

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Thymine pairs with

Adenine

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Guanine pairs with

Cytosine

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Cytosine pairs with

Guanine

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Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

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Prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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linear chromosomes

Eukaryotes

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circular chromosomes

prokaryotes

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How many strands does DNA have?

2

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PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

is used to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA

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Stage 1

DNA is unwound and unzipped, hydrogen bonds are broken

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Stage 2 (leading strand)

a primer is added to the 3' end and DNA polymerase will add the loose DNA nucleotides using complementary base pairing.

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Stage 2 (lagging strand)

Lagging strand is synthesised in fragments. Nucleotides cannot be added to the phosphate (5') end because DNA polymerase can only add DNA nucleotides in a 5' to 3' direction. The lagging strand is therefore synthesised in fragments. The fragments are then sealed together by an enzyme called ligase.

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Stage 3

2 new strands are made

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1st stage of PCR

DNA heated to between 92 and 98°C- to denature the DNA and separate the two strands.

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2nd stage of PCR

DNA cooled to between 50 and 65°C - to allow primers to bind to target DNA sequences.

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3rd stage of PCR

Complementary primers added - which are complementary to the target sequences at the two ends of the region to be amplified.

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4th stage of PCR

Heated to betweeen 70 and 80°C -tolerant DNA polymerase added - which replicates the region of DNA to be amplified. Two strands are formed.

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5th stage of PCR

Repeated cycles of heating and cooling amplify the target region of DNA.

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Uses for PCR

solve crimes, settle paternity suits and diagnose genetic disorders.

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DNA polymerase

Enzyme in DNA replication that binds individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

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Nucleotide

1 set of dna

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Primer

A short segment of DNA that acts as the starting point for a new strand

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Ligase

An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment

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Lagging strand

Is discontinus

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gel electrophoresis

separates DNA fragments by size

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cellular differentiation

the process by which a cell expresses certain genes to produce PROTEINS characteristic for that type of cell

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stem cells

undifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate

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embryonic stem cells

embryonic cells, which can develop into any type of body cell and are pluripotent

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tissue stem cells

stem cells from tissue that divide and differentiate to become cells of that tissue and are multipotent

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uses of tissue stem cells

Growth, repair and renewal of the cells found in that tissue

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ethical issues in embryonic stem cells

involves destruction of embryos

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Therapeutic uses of stem cells

the repair of damaged or diseased organs or tissues

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research uses for stem cells

study how diseases develop or being used for drug testing

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meristems

Meristems are regions of unspecialised cells in plants that can divide (self-renew) and/or differentiate.

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Apical meristems

found in the Root Tip & Shoot Tip, These increase in length/height.

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Lateral meristems

A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.

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Genome

entire hereditary information encoded in DNA

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Genome is made up of

Genes and other DNA sequences that do not code for proteins

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genes

DNA sequences that code for protein

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Non-coding sequences can either

regulate transcription or transcribed and not translated

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82

transcribed but not translated

trna and Rrna

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Evoultion

changes in organisms over generations as a result of variation in the populations genome

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natural selection

non-random process that results in frequent of DNA sequences that increases survival and the non random reduction in deleterious sequences

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stabilising selection

the average phenotype is selected

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disrupive selection

the extreme versions of phenotypes are favoured

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directional selection

one extreme phenotype is favored

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vertical gene transfer

transfer of genes from an organism to its offspring

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horizontal gene transfer

transfer of genes between cells of the same generation

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what gene transfer is more rapid

horizontal gene transfer

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speciation

the evolutionary process by which new species are formed as a result of isolation mutations and selection

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allopatric speciation

the process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation

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sympatric speciation

The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area (ecological or behavioural)

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Evoultion

changes in organisms over generations as a result of variation in the populations genome

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95

natural selection

non-random process that results in frequent of DNA sequences that increases survival and the non random reduction in deleterious sequences

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96

stabilising selection

the average phenotype is selected

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97

disrupive selection

the extreme versions of phenotypes are favoured

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98

directional selection

one extreme phenotype is favored

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99

vertical gene transfer

transfer of genes from an organism to its offspring

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100

horizontal gene transfer

transfer of genes between cells of the same generation

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