Period 7 Unit A+B

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Alice Paul

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1

Alice Paul

Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

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2

Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)

1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time)

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3

Australian Ballot

A secret ballot printed by the state.

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4

Bull Moose Party

A name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912.

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5

Carl Sandburg

Abraham Lincoln biography guy

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6

Clayton Antitrust Act (1904)

legislation that outlawed interlocking directorates if they resulted in the formation of a monopoly

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7

Direct Primary

A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office

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8

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.

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9

Elkins Act (1903)

Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Act by imposing heavy fines on railroads offering rebates and on the shippers accepting them

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10

Eugene Debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

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11

Federal Reserve Act

a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

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12

Frederick W Taylor

The original "efficiency expert" who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911, preached the gospel of efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.

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13

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

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14

Hepburn Act (1906)

This Act tightened existing railroad regulation. Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroad's financial records.

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15

Hiram Johnson

A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican govenor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.

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16

Hull House

Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

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17

Ida Tarbell

Leading muckraking journalist whose articles documented the Standard Oil Company's abuse of power

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18

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

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19

Initiative Referendum

A state-level method of direct legislation that gave voters a chance to introduce, approve or disapprove proposed legislation or proposed constitutional amendments.!

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20

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

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21

Commies

an offensive term for communists

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22

Jacob Riis

Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen

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23

Jane Addams

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

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24

John Dewey

He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."

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25

Pragmatism

A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.

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26

Lincoln Steffens

United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.

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27

Lochner v. New York (1905)

Declared unconstitutional a New York act limiting the working hours of bakers due to a denial of the 14th Amendment rights.

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28

Louis Brandeis

A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.

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29

McClure's Magazine

American illustrated monthly periodical popular at the turn of the 20th century

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30

Meat Inspection Act (1906)

Made it so that meat would be inspected by the government from coral to can. It began a quality rating system as well as increased the sanitation requirements for meat producers.

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31

Muckrakers

Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public

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32

Muller v. Oregon (1908)

First case to use the "Brandeis brief"; recognized a 10-hour work day for women laundry workers on the grounds of health and community concerns.

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33

NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

advocated for rights for African Americans through the courts

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34

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

Organization formed in 1890 to continue the pursuit of women's rights, especially the right to vote

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35

New Freedom

Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.

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36

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

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37

Newlands Reclamation Act

1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states

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38

Panic of 1907

a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.

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39

Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)

Taft signed this law that increased import taxes. This was a very regressive tax (regressive = costs the poor and middle class more than it costs the rich). Teddy knew it would be difficult to get Congress to lower taxes on the poor and middle class but was outraged when Taft agreed to sign this law that so clearly increased taxes on working people.

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40

Progressivism

movement that responded to the pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms

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41

Prohibition

A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages

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42

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906

This law forbade the manufacture or transport or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs and poisonous patent medicines and gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. It paved the way for the eventual creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still in existence as the FDA.

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43

Robert Follette

led way in regulating big businesses he targeted the railroad industry

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44

Scientific Management

the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace

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45

Settlement Houses

Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants

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46

Seventeenth Amendment

1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators

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47

Sierra Club

American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.

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48

Social Gospel Movement

A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society

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49

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all

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50

Susan B. Anthony

Key leader of woman suffrage movement

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51

Talented Tenth

According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks

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52

19th Amendment (1920)

Ratified on August 18, 1920 (drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910's most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the U.S.

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53

Ashcan School (New York Realists)

Group of artists who painted realistic scenes Focused on subjects of everyday life; titles such as The Wrestlers and Sixth Avenue Members included George Luke, George Bellows, John Sloan, Robert Henri, Everett Shinn, and Arthur B. Davies

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54

Niagara Movement

(1905) W.E.B. Du Bois and other young activists, who did not believe in accommodation, came together at Niagara Falls in 1905 to demand full black equality. Demanded that African Americans get right to vote in states where it had been taken away, segregation be abolished, and many discriminatory barriers be removed. Declared commitment for freedom of speech, brotherhood of all peoples, and respect for workingman

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55

Theodore Roosevelt

1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.

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56

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)

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57

Trustbusting

Government activities aimed at breaking up monopolies and trusts.

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58

Underwood Tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax

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59

Upton Sinclair, The Jungle

The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.

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60

W.E.B. DuBois

Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.

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61

William Haywood ("Big Bill")

Leader of the IWW ( Industrial Workers of the World ) whose goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism

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62

William Howard Taft

(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson

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63

Wisconsin Idea

A policy promoted by Republican governor Robert La Follette of Wisconsin for greater government intervention in the economy, with reliance on experts, particularly progressive economists, for policy recommendations.

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64

Women's Party

A group of militant suffragists who took to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes to convince the govt to give them the right to vote. Led by Alice Paul.

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65

Arsenal of the Entente

new dangerous weapons like tear gas for the war

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66

"He kept us out of war"

Wilson's campaign slogan in 1916 reminding the public that they weren't entangled in WWI

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67

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

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68

19th Amendment (1920)

Ratified on August 18, 1920 (drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910's most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the U.S.

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69

369th Regiment

in World War I, an African American regiment of the U.S. Army nicknamed the "Hell Fighters" who earned France's highest military honors for active combat.

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70

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

Founded in 1920. The ACLU seeks to protect the civil liberties of individuals, often by bringing "test cases" to court in order to challenge questionable laws. In 1925, the ACLU challenged a Christian fundamentalist law in the Scopes Monkey Trial.

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71

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

United States troops in World War I; including draftees, volunteers, and the National Guard.

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72

American Protection League

A private organization that encouraged people to spy on their neighbors; even opened people's mail, tapped phones, and pried into medical records

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73

Armistice Day

November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veterans Day

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74

Article Ten of League of Nations

If one nation in the proposed league were threatened, every other country would have to swoop in and defend it; opposition to this by Americans who did not want to be entangled in European affairs

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75

Battle of Chateau-Thierry (1918)

The first significant engagement of American troops in WWI - and indeed, in any European war. To weary French soldiers, the American doughboys were an image of fresh and gleaming youth

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76

Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.

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77

Boston Police Strike of 1919

the Police Force in Boston, MA went on a strike, and in fear of communism, President Coolidge (then governor at the time) fired them and called in the militia to be the police force

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78

Central Powers

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire

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79

Chicago Race Riots

A black man was swimming and a group of white men hit him with a rock and he drowned; this caused a race riot; 40 people died, hundreds injured and thousands left homeless because of arsonists. Was the worst Riot in The Red Summer.

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80

Committee on Public Information (CPI)

government agency created during World War I to encourage Americans to support the war (LOTS of media + propaganda)

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81

Dollar Diplomacy

Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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82

East St. Louis Race Riot

Devastating 1917 riot that erupted when whites overran a section of East St. Louis, Illinois, occupied by African Americans who had been recruited as strikebreakers. The white mob murdered at least 39 people and burned down most of the neighborhood. This episode and race riots in two dozen other northern cities demonstrated that while the North held valuable new opportunities for blacks, it was far from a promised land.

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83

Entente Cordiale

The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding.

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84

Espionage Act

1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying

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85

Food and Fuel Commission

oversaw food and fuel production/distribution during wartime

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86

Fourteen Point Plan

wilson's post-war goals called for smaller military forces, and end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, and free trade - very idealistic

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87

General John J. Pershing

General of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI

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88

George Creel

Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

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89

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

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90

Great Steel Strike of 1919

  • 250k+ steelworkers went on strike to get the right to organize and bargain

  • Steel companies resisted, hired 30k *Af-Am strikebreakers *

  • Bitter confrontations left more than a dozen workers dead, steel strike collapsed, setback crippled union movement for more than a decade

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91

Great Strikes

A series of labor union strikes in the late 1800's. Most of the strikes resulted in violence and failed because the owners used extreme tactics to end them. Also the government often took the side of the owners against the unions.

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92

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

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93

Irreconcilables

Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

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94

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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95

Lever Act 1917

  • Gave president control over production, price & distribution of food & fuel

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96

Lusitania

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.

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97

Marcus Garvey

African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.

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98

Mexican Revolution

(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

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99

Pancho Villa

A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.

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100

Nativism

A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

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