Endocrinology Final

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produce testosterone and sperm

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Biology

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1

produce testosterone and sperm

functions of testes

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2

epididymis

site where sperm matures and develops the ability to be mobile; stores mature sperm

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3

vas deferens

long tube which conducts sperm from the testes to the prostate

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4

seminal vesicle

secretes fluid containing fructose, mucus, and prostaglandin

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5

prostate gland

secretes an alkaline fluid to neutralize vaginal acids

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6

Urethra

conducts sperm/semen from the prostate gland to the outside of the body

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7

seminiferous tubules

where sperm are produced

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8

rete testis

where tubules converge, empties into the epididymis

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9

Leydig cell

where production of testosterone takes place

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10

Sertoli cells

where gametogenesis occurs

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11

smooth muscle

what type of cell wraps around seminiferous tubules

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12

Sertoli cell

cell type that lines the tubules

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13

tight junctions

hold Sertoli cells together

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14

basal compartment

extends from the smooth muscle to the tight junction

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15

lumenal compartment

extends from the light junction to the lumen of the tubule

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16

Leydig cells

cell type that surround the seminiferous tubule/are found in between them

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17

GnRH

released by the hypothalamus, signals release of LH and FSH

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18

LH and FSH

released by the anterior pituitary, signal release of steroid hormone/gamete production

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19

peptide

GnRH type of hormone

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20

glycoprotein

FSH and LH type of protein

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21

GPCR on Leydig cell, AC, cAMP, PKA

LH signaling mechanism

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22

steroid

testosterone type of hormone

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23

primary and secondary sex characteristics, skeletal muscle growth, sex drive, increased bone density

functions of testosterone

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24

androgen-binding protein

testosterone in bloodstream circulates bound to…

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25

unbound

only _____ testosterone is biologically active

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26

diffuses into cell, binds to androgen receptor, dissociates from HSP, translocates to nucleus, dimerizes, binds to HRE, regulates gene expression

testosterone signaling mechanism

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27

dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

most potent androgen

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28

liver

where are testosterone/derivates degraded

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29

5a-reductase

converts testosterone into DHT

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30

anabolic steroids

synthetic testosterone

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31

delayed puberty, muscle atrophy

testosterone can be clinically used to treat…

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32

acne, aggression, hair loss, heart attack, high BP, infertility, liver damage, breast pain and enlargement

negative effects of anabolic steroids

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33

spermatogonia

diploid germ cells, undergo mitosis to produce primary spermatocytes

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34

primary spermatocyte

diploid cell, undergoes meiosis I

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35

secondary spermatocyte

haploid cell, undergoes meiosis II

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36

spermatids

haploid cells that undergo spermiogenesis (maturation) to produce sperm

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37

spermatozoa

sperm cells

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38

70

how many days does spermatogenesis take

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39

GPCR on sertoli cell, cAMP, ABP binds, maintains high levels of testosterone

FSH signaling mechanism

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40

100,000,000

how many sperm are produced per day

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41

2-5

how many days can sperm live

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42

acrosome

head of sperm, contains enzymes to penetrate egg

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43

negative feedback on hypothalamus (GnRH) and pituitary (LH)

how is testosterone regulated

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44

inhibin

inhibits secretion of FSH

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45

peptide

inhibin type of hormone

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46

high levels of FSH

stimulates production of inhibin by sertoli cells

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47

ovary

where oocytes mature prior to the release, estrogen and progesterone secretion

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48

fimbria

fringe of tissue adjacent to an ovary that sweep an oocyte into the oviduct

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49

fallopian tube

transports the oocyte to the uterus, where fertilization occurs

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50

uterus

organ where a fertilized egg will implant and develop

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51

endometrium

mucous membrane lining of the uterus, thickens in preparation for implantation or is lost via menstruation

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52

cervix

muscular opening protecting the uterus

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53

vagina

passage leading to the uterus by which the penis and sperm can enter

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54

produce estrogen and progesterone, develop and store eggs

function of ovaries

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55

estrogen

produced during first half of menstrual cycle, increases thickness of endometrium

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56

Progesterone

produced during second half of menstrual cycle, maintains endometrium

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57

breasts, body hair, fat distribution

characteristics regulated by progesterone

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58

endometrium

inner layer lining the uterus

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59

myometrium

middle layer of smooth muscle

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60

perimetrium

outer layer of serous tissue

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61

FSH

stimulates granulosa cells to provide nourishment for developing follicle and egg

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62

LH

stimulates hormone synthesis in theca cells and stimulates ovulation

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63

progesterone

produced by corpus luteum

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64

prepare uterus for implantation, regulates monthly menstrual cycle

functions of progesterone

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65

steroid

progesterone type of hormone

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66

estrogens

group of steroid hormones that promote and maintain female body characteristics

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67

E1

estrone

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68

E2

estradiol

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69

E3

estriol

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70

LH binds to GPCR on theca cells, stimulates synthesis of androstenedione

LH role in estrogen production

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71

FSH binds to GPCR on granulosa cells and stimulates conversion of androgens to estrodiol

FSH role in estrogen production

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72

intracellular and membrane-bound

types of receptors estrogen can bind to

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73

oogenesis

process by which female gametes are produced in ovaries

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74

Oogonium

diploid precursor cell, undergoes mitosis to produce primary oocytes

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75

primary oocyte

diploid cell that undergoes meiosis I to produce secondary oocyte

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76

secondary oocyte

haploid cell that is frozen in metaphase II until fertilization occurs

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77

ovum

haploid female gamete

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78

24 hours

how long do eggs live for

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79

follicular phase

ovarian follicle develops, menstruation to ovulation, day 1-14

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80

ovulation

egg is released, day 14

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81

luteal phase

corpus luteum generates progesterone, ovulation to before menstruation, day 14-28

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82

menstrual phase

uterine lining shed

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83

proliferative phase

uterine lining develops

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84

secretory phase

glands secrete products

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85

ovarian follicle

fluid-filled structure containing a developing oocyte and supporting cells

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86

primary follicle develops into a secondary follicle, secondary oocyte released into fallopian tube during ovulation, rest of secondary follicle develops into corpus luteum

follicular phase events

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87

primordial follicle

contains primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cell, remains in arrested state

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88

primary follicle

contains primary oocyte surrounded by zona pellucida and granulosa cells

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89

secondary follicle

stratified granulosa cells, theca cells, oocyte is arrested in late prophase of meiosis I

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90

graafian follicle

mature follicle containing secondary oocyte, contains antrum (fluid-filled space)

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91

oogenesis

primary oocytes complete first meiotic division, first polar body produced, secondary oocyte is produced and enters meiosis II, but is arrested in metaphase

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92

upon fertilization

second round of meiosis completed, second polar body extruded

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93

luteal phase

mature follicle fills with blood, forming corpus hemorrhagicum, theca and granulosa cells divide, cholesterol levels rise, corpus luteum is formed

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94

FSH levels

elevated at beginning of cycle and diminish through early and middle follicular phases

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95

LH levels

remain low during follicular phase, then surges after mid-cycle

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96

estrogen

peaks at mid-cycle

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97

1-5

days of menstruation phase

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98

6-14

days of proliferative phase

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99

15-28

days of secretory phase

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100

menstruation

estrogen and progesterone levels are low

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