Anatomy Exam 1

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Anatomy

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155 Terms

1

Anatomy

Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another

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Physiology

Study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities

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Three Areas of Anatomy

  1. Gross or macroscopic anatomy

  2. Microscopic Anatomy

  3. Developmental Anatomy

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Structural Organization

Chemical Cellular Tissue Organ Organ System Organismal Level

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Requirements for Life

  1. Maintaining boundaries

  2. Movement

  3. Responsiveness

  4. Digestion

  5. Metabolism

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Growth

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Maintaining Boundaries

Separation between internal external environments must exist

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Movement

Muscular system allows movement

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Contractility

Refers to movement at the cellular level

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Responsiveness

Ability to sense and respond to stimuli

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Digestion

Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood

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Metabolism

All chemical reactions that occur in body cells -The sum of all catabolism and anabolism

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Excretion

Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion

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Urea

A chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins -Excretion

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Reproduction

At the cellular and organismal level

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Growth

Increase in size of a body part or of organisms

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The 11 Organ Systems

  1. Integumentary

  2. Skeletal

  3. Muscular

  4. Nervous

  5. Endocrine

  6. Cardiovascular

  7. Lymphatic

  8. Respiratory

  9. Digestive

  10. Urinary

  11. Reproductive

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Integumentary System

Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous receptors and seat and oil glands

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Skeletal System

Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals

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Muscular System

Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.

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Nervous System

As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.

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Endocrine System

Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.

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Cardiovascular System

Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.

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Lymphatic System

Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body

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Respiratory System

Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.

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Digestive System

Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.

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Urinary System

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.

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Reproduction System

Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.

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Homeostasis

maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment

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Three components of homeostatic control

  1. receptor

  2. control center

  3. effector

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Receptor

monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)

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Control Center

Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained, receives input from receptor, and determines appropriate response

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Effector

Receives output from the control center and produces a response -Receives either reduce stimulus (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus (positive feedback)

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receptor to control center

afferent pathway

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Control Center to Effector

efferent pathway

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negative feedback

The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus

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Negative Feedback examples

body temperature, blood pressure, glucose regulation

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Positive Feedback

Response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus -May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect as feedback causes the variable to continue in the same direction as the initial change

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Positive Feedback Examples

enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting

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Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space

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Weight

Mass plus the effects of gravity

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State of Matter

A physical property that describes matter as a solid, liquid, or gas.

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Solid

Definite shape and volume

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Liquid

changeable shape; definite volume

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Gas

Changeable shape and volume

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Energy

The capacity to do work and put matter into motion

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Two Forms of Energy

kinetic and potential

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Kinetic Energy

Energy in action

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Heat

A disoriented type of kinetic energy- lowest form of energy quality

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Potential Energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness

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Forms of Energy

Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy Radiant or Electromagnetic Energy

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Chemical Energy

Stored in bonds of chemical substances -Food which we breakdown into ATP

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Electrical Energy

Results from movement of charged particles -Action potential in neurons

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Mechanical Energy

Directly involved in moving matter

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Radiant or Electromagnetic Energy

Travels in waves (example: heat, visible light, ultraviolent light, and x-rays)

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Energy from Conversions

Energy may be converted from one form to another

this is inefficient because 75% is lost as heat. that is why you sweat it is the release of that in made in the body when doing work

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Elements

substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

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Four elements make up 96% of body

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen

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Atoms

Building block for each element, smallest particles of an element with properties of that element

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Atomic Symbol

one or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element -Some symbols come from Latin names "Na" natrium is sodium

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The subatomic particles of an atom

protons, neutrons, electrons

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Protons

carry a positive charge

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Neutrons

no charge

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles

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Orbital Model

represents electrons as a cloud of negative charge

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Planetary Model

Shows electrons as two small spheres on a circle around the nucleus

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Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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Radioisotopes

Isotopes that decompose to more stable forms As isotopes decay, subatomic particles that are being given off release a little energy that's called radioactivity

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Molecules

Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

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Compound

Specific molecule that has 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together

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Chemical Bonds

energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms

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Types of Chemical Bonds

ionic, covalent, hydrogen

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Ionic Bonds

Involves the transfer of valence shell electrons from one atom to another, resulting in ions

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Ions

Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged

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Anion

A negatively charged ion -One that gained the electron

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Cation

A positively charged ion -One that lost the electron

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Moat ionic compounds are...

salts -When dry, salts form crystals instead of individual molecules

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Covalent Bonds

Bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms. -Allows each atom to fill its valence shell at least part of the time

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Two Types of Covalent Bonds

polar and nonpolar

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Polar Covalent Bond

The unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms that gives rise to negative and positive regions of electric charge -The more electronegative atom gets most of the electron

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Most Common Polar Molecule

water

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nonpolar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms, results in electronically balanced, nonpolar molecules such as CO2

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Hydrogen Bonds

Attractive forces between electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule -Not a true bond, more of a weak magnetic attraction

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Chemical Equations Contain

reactants and products

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Reactants

Substances entering into reaction together

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Products

resulting chemical end products

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Types of Chemical Reactions

Synthesis and Decomposition

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Synthesis

Combination reactions involve atoms or molecules combining to form larger, more complex molecules -Used in anabolic (building) processes

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Decomposition

Involves the breakdown of a molecule into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms -Involves catabolic reactions

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Biochemistry

The study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter

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Organic Compounds

Compounds that contain carbon, usually large and covalently bonded

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Most abundant inorganic compound in the body

Water. 60-80% of the volume of living cells.

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Water Properties

High Heat Capacity High Heat of Vaporization Polar Solvent Properties Reactivity Cushioning

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Salts

Inorganic ionic compounds that dissociate into separate ions in water

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Acids and Bases

Ionize and dissociate in water

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Acids

Proton donors: they release hydrogen ions, bare protons (have no electrons) in solution

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Important Acids

HCl (hydrochloric acid), HC2H3O2 (acetic acid, abbreviated HAc), and H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

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Carbonic Acid

A very weak acid formed in solution when carbon dioxide dissolves in water- When we don't get rid of enough CO2 and it reacts with water, our blood becomes acidic

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Bases

Proton acceptors: they pick up H+ ions in solution Example: NaOH --> Na+ and OH-

When a base dissolves in solution, it releases a hydroxyl ion (OH-)

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pH Scale

A measurement of concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution

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pH scale ranges from

0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)

-pH scale is logarithmic, so each pH unit represents a 10-fold difference (a pH of 5 solution is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 6 solution)

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