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Female gonads

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230 Terms

1

Female gonads

ovaries

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Ovaries

located in pelvic cavity along lateral wall within the broad ligament; female gonads; endocrine hormones; site of oocyte maturation and produce reproductive hormones

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Ovarian ligament

medial region of each ovary and attaches to the lateral side of the uterus; superior portion of embryonic gubernaculum; connects the ovary to the uterus

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4

Females are born with

all the oocytes they will ever have

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5

Ovulation

an ovum (mature ovarian follicle) ruptures is released into the uterine tube

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Isthmus

narrow opening of uterus; inferior portion

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external os

opening between the cervix and vagina

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8

salpinx

trumpet, tube

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Arterial supply of the ovary

ovarian arteries from abdominal aorta; two arteries are bilaterally symmetrical

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Venous drainage of the left ovarian vein

left renal vein

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Venous draining of right ovarian vein

IVC

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12

Suspensory ligament of the ovary

connective tissue that connects the ovaries to the aorta and IVC;

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13

Uterine tubes

tube that courses from the uterus to the ovary

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14

Oviduct

duct that transports ovum/oocyte to uterus

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15

Infundibulum

funnel-shaped distal end of uterine tube

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Ampulla

widest, longest part of uterine tube; usually the site of fertilization

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Isthmus

thick-walled and narrower part of uterine tube

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Uterine part

short segment that passes from the uterine tube through the wall of the uterus

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Fimbrae

finger-like processes spread over the surface of the ovary; help sweep the oocyte into the tube

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Uterus

provides an environment for developing fetus; provides muscular power of contractions during childbirth; hollow organ in pelvic cavity between bladder and rectum

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Body of the uterus

main portion of the uterus; three tissue layers (endometrium, myometrium, and epimetrium)

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Fundus

palpated to determine how far along a pregnancy is; upper rounded portion of body

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23

Endometrium

epithelial lined layer within the uterus

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Myometrium

smooth muscle layer of the uterus

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Epimetrium

outside layer of the uterus

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Cervix

neck of the uterus; narrow bottom 1/3 of the uterus

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27

Uterine arterial supply

uterine artery (branch of internal iliac artery)

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Uterine venous drainage

uterine venous plexus

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29

Uterine innervation

uterovaginal nerve plexus; autonomic

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30

Cardinal ligament

condensation of endopelvic fascia that supports the position of the uterus within the pelvis

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31

Broad ligament

folds in the inferior portion of the peritoneum

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32

Mesovarium

peritoneum covering ovary and ovarian vesicles

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Mesosalpinx

peritoneum covering the uterine tube

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34

Mesometrium

peritoneum covering the uterus

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35

Vagina

muscular tube between vestibule perineum to the fornices

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Vestibule perineum

the cleft between the labia minora containing the vaginal and urethral orifices

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Fornix (fornices)

recesses created by the extension of the cervix into the vaginal space

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Arterial supply of the middle and inferior parts of the vagina

vaginal and internal pudendal arteries

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39

Arterial supply of the superior parts of the vagina

uterine artery

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40

Venous drainage of the vagina

vaginal venous plexus

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41

Inferior 1/4 of the vagina innervation

somatic innervation by the deep perineal nerve (branch of the pudendal nerve)

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42

Superior 3/4 of the vagina innervation

uterovaginal nerve plexus

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43

Ligaments in the context of the vagina

readily visible or palpable

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44

Folds of the peritoneum

broad ligament and the suspensory ligament of the ovary

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45

Ligaments of remnants from development

remnants of the gabernaculum; ovarian ligament and round ligament

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46

Round ligament

remnant of the gabernaculum; embryological remnant; passes anterolaterally from the uterus to the abdominal wall via the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora; help keep uterus in anteverted position

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47

Cardinal ligaments

transverse cervical ligaments; condensations of fascia from pelvic walls to cervix and vagina; convey the uterine artery and vein and the uterovaginal nerve plexus

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48

Uterosacral ligaments

endopelvic fascia that connects sacral fascia to the uterus at the level of the isthmus

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49

Pubocervical ligaments

part of the pelvic floor that forms a sling; passes from pubic symphysis around and posterior to vagina and cervix; maintain continence by compressing vagina and urethra against bone

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50

Perineum

diamond-shaped region of the body between the upper thighs, pubic symphysis, and the coccyx

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51

Perineal diamond is divided into

anterior urogenital triangle and posterior anal triangle

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52

Anterior urogenital triangle

external genitalia and underlying erectile tissues and glands, thin muscles that primarily contribute to maintenance of erection, neurovascular structures, and fascia

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Posterior anal triangle

contains anal musculature and neurovasculature

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54

Female external genitalia

vulva

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55

Female external genitalia includes

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, clitoris, vestibular bulbs, great vestibular glands

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56

Mons pubis

just above the genitals and anterior to the pubic bone; structure protrudes because of underlying fat pad

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Labia majora

hair covered folds of the skin; lateral to labia minora

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Labia minora

hairless folds of the skin that frame the vestibule; vary in size; homologous to scrotum in males

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Vestibule

location of the urethral and vaginal openings; framed by the labia minora

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60

Two types of erectile tissues

clitoris, vestibular bulbs

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61

Clitoris

one set of erectile tissues; richly innervated erectile body; contains the glands, body, and two crura

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Glans of the clitoris

most richly innervated part of the clitoris; only part visible externally

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63

Ischiocavernosus muscles

overlie the crura of the clitoris

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Vestibular bulbs

one set of erectile tissues; elongated erectile tissues deep to the labia minora

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Bulbospongiosus muscles

overlie the bulbs

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66

Great vestibular glands

two glands located slightly below the opening of the vagina; secrete mucus to provide lubrication; homologous to bulbourethral glands in males

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Superficial transverse perineal muscle

thin muscle that runs transversely

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68

Perineal body

fibromuscular structure located at the junction of the perineal, anal, and levator ani muscles between inferior vagina and anal canal; supports the posterior vagina and pelvic floor

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Perineum innervation

somatic pudendal nerve

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Perineum sensory innervation

branches of pudendal nerve innervate vulvva

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Skin of anterior urethra is innervated by

ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves

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Perineum motor innervation

pudendal nerve innervates perineal muscles which contract to help maintain erection

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Arterial supply of the perineum

internal pudendal artery

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Venous drainage of the perineum

internal pudendal vein

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75

lymphatic drainage of the perineum

superficial inguinal lymph nodes

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76

Male internal genital organss

testis, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate, and bulbourethral glands

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Male urethra

common passage for urinary system and reproductive system

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78

Male external organs after birth

testes and epididymus

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79

Testes

male gonads; produce male germ cells (sperms) and male hormones; suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord

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Spermatic cord

suspends the testes in the scrotum

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Tunica albuginea

tough fibrous outer layer surrounding the testes

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Seminiferous tubules

where sperm are produced

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Why do testes pass through the inguinal canal to the external body?

core body temperature is too warm for sperm to develop

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Arterial supply of the tunica albuginea and epididymis

testicular arteries

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Venous draining of the tunica albuginea and epididymis

pampiniform plexus of veins

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Lymphatic drainage of the tunica albuginea and epididymis

lumbar pre-arotic lymph nodes

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87

Efferent ductules

transport newly developed sperm from testes to the epididymis

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Epididymis

where sperm mature and are stored

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Ductus deferens

vas deferens; tough, cord-like muscular tube that transports sperm from the epididymus to the urethra

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Seminal vesicle

produce an alkaline fluid that gives sperms energy and acts as an anti-coagulant; connect the ductus deferens to form right and left ejaculatory ducts

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Prostate

largest accessory gland in the male reproductive system; inferior to the bladder; contains 20-30 prostatic ducts that release prostatic secretions

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Prostatic fluid

thin, milky fluid that plays a role in activating the sperm

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93

Bulbourethral glands

Cowper’s glands; secrete mucus-like secretion during sexual arousal

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94

Vasectomy

form of male sterilization; office procedure

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95

Bening prostatic hypertrophy

normal process of aging where an enlarged prostate projects into the bladder; can cause urethral obstruction resulting in dysuria, increased urgency; increased frequency, and leaking or dribbling

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96

External male genitalia

erectile tissue and skin of the penis

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97

Penis

outlet for urine and semen

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98

Erectile tissue of the penis

three cylindrical bodies: two corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum

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99

Deep fascia of the penis

continuation of deep perineal fascia that holds erectile tissues tightly together

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100

Glans

tip of the penis; urethra opens at the tip

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