Bio Final

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Properties of living organisms

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Tags and Description

263 Terms

1

Properties of living organisms

Order, energy processing, growth and development, evolutionary adaptation, response to environment, reproduction, regulation

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The fundamental organizing principle of biology

Molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere

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3

Emergent properties

result from the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system

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4

Systems biology

Studying how components of a system function/interact together

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Reductionism

reducing complex systems to simpler components so that are more manageable to study

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6

Describe a cell

Smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life (metabolize, reproduce, growth)

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Eukaryotic cell

has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus

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8

Prokaryotic cell

simpler and usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles

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9

Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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Structure and function of dna

molecule of dna is made up of two long strands of nucleotides, order of nucleotides "encodes" information, arranged in a double helix

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Transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

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12

Translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

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Genome/genomics

Library of genetic instructions, the study of whole sets of genes in one or more species

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14

Positive feedback

A type of regulation in which an end product speeds up its own production

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15

Negative feedback

A primary mechanism of homeostasis, in which the response reduces the initial stimulus (Insulin)

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16

Descent with modification

principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time

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17

Classification of organisms

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

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18

Three domains of life

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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19

Natural selection

A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

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Darwin's observations

  1. Members of a population often vary in their inherited traits

  2. All species can produce more offspring than the environment can support, and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce

  3. Species tend to suit their environment

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Darwin's inferences

  1. Individuals with traits that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce

  2. over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits

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22

Evolutionary adaptation

An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.

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23

inductive reasoning

derives generalizations from a large number of specific observations

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Deductive reasoning

uses general premises to make specific predictions

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Limitations of science

Science is limited to studying that which is observable as well as processes in which variables can be controlled.

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Controlled experiment

An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time.

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27

Hypothesis vs theory

A hypothesis is either a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon, or a reasoned prediction of a possible causal correlation among multiple phenomena. A theory is a tested, well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified, proven factors.

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28

Linnaeus

concerned with classifying organisms, founder of taxonomy, developed the binomial format for naming species

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29

How did paleontology influence Darwin?

Supported his ideas of evolution by observing fossils

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30

George's Cuvier

Father of paleontology whose studies of fossils revealed: Stratification, Change through time, Extinction, and Catastrophism

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James Hutton and Charles Lyell

scientists who proposed the Earth was millions of years old due to their geological findings (gradualism)

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32

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

he proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms could acquire or lose certain traits which are then passed on to their children and future generations, eventually changing the species

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Origin of species

1859: Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce

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Alfred Wallace

Came up with the idea of natural selection to explain evolution, joint published with Darwin

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35

Artificial selection

Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.

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36

Natural selection

A natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment.

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37

Evidence supporting evolution

direct observations, homology, fossil record, biogeography

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38

Analogy

a similarity of features within different species in the same environment

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39

Homology

Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.

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40

vestigial structures

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors but has no clear function in the modern species.

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41

Convergent evolution

the evolution of similar, or analogous, features in distantly related groups

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42

Fossil record

provides us with information about organisms going extinct, the ancestors of existing organisms, the changes that have occurred in organisms over time

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43

Element vs compound

A compound contains atoms of different elements chemically combined together in a fixed ratio. An element is a pure chemical substance made of thesame type of atom.

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44

Major elements in living organisms (96%)

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

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45

Structure and properties of atoms

smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of the element, composed of subatomic particles

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46

Atomic mass vs atomic number

The atomic mass is the sum of protons and neutrons, and the atomic number is the number of protons.

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47

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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48

Valence electrons

Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom

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49

Polar vs non polar covalent bonds

polar covalent bonds do not have equally shared electrons, nonpolar covalent have equally shared electrons

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50

Single vs double covalent bonds

single is the sharing of one pair of valence electrons and double is the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons

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51

Ionic bonds

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another (often salts)

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52

Hydrogen bonds

Very weak bonds: occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule

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53

Van der Waals interactions

Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from transient local partial charges.

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54

Chemical equilibrium

a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of products and reactants remain unchanged

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55

why is water polar

Because it has positive and negative poles.

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56

what is hydrogen bonding

A bond between one positive hydrogen from one H2O and one negative oxygen of another H2O.

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57

Four emergent properties of water

  1. cohesion: an attraction between molecules of the same substance ex: water molecules bonding together through hydrogen bonding

  2. moderation of temperature: water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases that stored heat to cooler air, this happens as a result of evaporative cooling

  3. universal solvent: cannot dissolve everything but is very versatile

  4. expands when frozen

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58

specific heat

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1-degree celcius

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59

heat vs temperature

heat is the total amount of kinetic energy whereas temperature is the measure of heat intensity due to kinetic energy

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60

evaporative cooling

The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state.

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61

why ice floats

ice has a lower density that that of liquid water and is most dense at 4 degrees celsius. water freezes from top to bottom so if ice sank, most bodies of water would freeze solid making life impossible

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aquaeous solution

a solution in which water is the solvent

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63

Hydrophobic vs. Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic- have no affinity for water, are non-ionic and non-polar (oils)

Hydrophilic- have an affinity for water, are ionic and polar

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64

acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution by donating the hydrogen ions, pH less than 7

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base

A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution by accepting the hydrogen ions, pH more than 7

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buffer

A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.

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pH scale

scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution

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68

ocean acidification

decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels

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69

Vitalism vs. Mechanism

Vitalism: belief in life force, synthesis of compounds is impossible, disproved by miller

Mechanism: all-natural phenomenon is governed by physical and chemical laws

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70

Miller experiment

demonstrated that organic compounds may have been synthesized abiotically by simulating conditions on primordial earth with electrical discharges simulating lightening and an early atmosphere that contained hydrogen, ammonia, and methane

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71

carbon

has four valence electrons and can form four covalent bonds

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72

hydrocarbon

Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen

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73

isomer

compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures

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74

difference between enantiomers, structural, and geometric isomers

enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images of each other

structural: have different covalent arrangements of their atoms

geometric(cis-trans): have the same covalent bonds but differ in their spacial arrangements

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75

seven functional groups

hydroxyl: alcohol (ex: ethanol)

carbonyl: ketone/aldehyde (ex: acetone)

carboxyl: carboxylic acid/organic acid (ex: acetic acid)

amino: amine (ex: glycine)

sulfhydryl: thiol (ex: cysteine)

phosphate: organic phosphate (ex: glycerol phosphate)

methyl: methylated compound (ex: methylcytosine)

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76

ATP

(Adenosine triphosphate) consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of phosphate groups, stores the potential to react with water, this reaction releases energy that can be used by the cell

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77

Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together. (Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids)

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78

what monomers build each of the following: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids

monosaccharides (glucose), amino acids, nucleotides

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79

how are polymers synthesized

dehydration/condensation reactions

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80

how are polymers broken down

hydrolysis reactions

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81

what are carbohydrates used for

energy and structure

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82

monosaccharides are joined into polymers via what

glycosidic linkages

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83

what is a disaccharide and what are maltose and sucrose composed of

is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides

maltose= two glucose molecules

sucrose= a fructose and a glucose molecule

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84

what are the storage carbohydrates

starch and glycogen

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85

what are the structural carbohydrates

cellulose and chitin

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86

what shapes can carbohydrates be

linear or a ring

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87

what is starch

a polymer of glucose and is a store for glucose found in plants

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88

different types of starch

amylose and amylopectin

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89

where can starch be found

plastids

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90

what is glycogen

a polymer of glucose and is a store for glucose found in animals

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91

what is cellulose

a polymer of glucose that forms the structural component of plant cell walls

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92

fats contain a glycerol molecule attached to 3 fatty acids via what

ester linkages

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93

saturated vs unsaturated fatty acids

saturated: have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and have no double bonds, are solid at room temp (animal fats)

unsaturated: have one or more double bonds, are liquid at room temp (vegetable fats)

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94

trans fat

An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds.

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95

adipose tissue

cushions vital organs and insulates the body

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96

phospholipids

two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol, the two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic head

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97

what are steroids a type of

lipid

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98

cholesterol

is a steroid that is found in cell membranes and consists of 4 fused rings

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99

general functions of proteins

defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, and structural support

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100

how to enzymes function as catalysts

they are proteins that speed up chemical reactions

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