Earth in Space Exam 2

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a naturally occurring solid inorganic object with a definite chemical structure.

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1

a naturally occurring solid inorganic object with a definite chemical structure.

What is the definition of a mineral?

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2

sodium chloride (NaCl)

What is the chemical name for table salt?

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there can be variations even within a specific mineral

Why is the color of a mineral considered the least reliable way to identify it?

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the color of a mineral in its powdered form

Define the term "streak" in mineralogy.

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Metallic luster reflects light very well, while a dull luster means the mineral does not reflect light well at all.

What is the difference between a metallic luster and a dull luster in minerals?

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Translucent minerals permit light to be transmitted through them but not particularly well

What is the term for minerals that permit light to be transmitted through them but not particularly well?

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Mohs scale.

What is the scale used to quantify the hardness of minerals?

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8

Talc

What is the least hard mineral on the Mohs scale?

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Diamond

What is the hardest mineral on the Mohs scale?

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10

refers to the resistance of a mineral to breaking or deforming

How is tenacity defined in mineralogy?

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11

brittle and malleable

What are the various terms used to describe the tenacity of minerals?

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12

refers to the crystal geometry of a mineral when broken.

What does cleavage refer to in mineralogy?

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13

 cubic cleavage, diagonal cleavage, and lateral cleavage.

Different types of cleavage.

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14

is measured by immersing it in a liquid.

How is the density of a mineral measured?

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15

The specific gravity of a mineral is the density of the mineral compared with the density of liquid water.

What is the specific gravity of a mineral?

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16

Magnetic properties of minerals can be tested using an ordinary bar magnet.

How can you test if a mineral has magnetic properties?

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17

The properties of minerals, including taste, smell, chemical reactivity, and various physical properties, enable their classification based on chemical composition.

What enables us to classify minerals based on their chemical composition?

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18

silicon-oxygen tetrahedral group SiO44–.

What is the basis of the majority of silicate minerals?

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carbon atom.

What are organic molecules based on?

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20

The two extreme categories of silicate minerals based on color and chemical complexity are the light silicates and the dark silicates.

What are the two extreme categories of silicate minerals based on color and chemical complexity?

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21

tectosilicates

What are the light silicates composed of?

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22

nesosilicates and sorosilicates.

What are the dark silicates composed of?

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23

Tectosilicates

Which silicate mineral has the lowest melting temperatures?

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Nesosilicates and sorosilicates

Which silicate mineral has the highest melting temperatures?

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sulfates, carbonates, oxides, halides, sulfides, and native elements.

What are the other mineral groups besides silicate minerals?

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thenardite / sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).

Name an example of a sulfate mineral.

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27

gypsum.

What is the common name for calcium sulfate?

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28

smithsonite or zinc spar.

What is the common name for zinc carbonate?

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29

hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4)

What are the examples of iron oxide minerals?

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Pyrite

What mineral is commonly known as fool's gold?

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31

bromargyrite.

What is the chemical name for silver bromide?

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32

Native elements

What is the term for minerals composed of a single type of metal?

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33

to minerals composed of a single type of metal.

What does the term "native elements" refer to in mineralogy?

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34

epsom salt.

What is the mineral that has the chemical name magnesium sulfate MgSO4?

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35

potassium chloride (KCl)

Another name for sylvite?

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36

Villiaumite

What is the mineral that has the chemical name sodium fluoride?

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sylvite.

What is the mineral that has the chemical name potassium chloride?

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38

galena

What is the mineral that has the chemical name lead sulfide?

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39

magnetite

What is the mineral that has the chemical name ferrous-ferric oxide?

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40

halite or table salt.

What is the mineral that has the chemical name sodium chloride?

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41

anglesite

What is the mineral that has the chemical name lead sulfate?

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42

transparent, opaque, and translucent.

What are the terms used to describe the transparency of minerals?

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43

more than one

What is the specific gravity of a mineral that sinks in liquid water?

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44

tectosilicates

What are the three-dimensional organic molecules called?

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45

methane

What is the simplest organic molecule called?

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46

the study of rocks

What is petrology?

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47

is a naturally occurring solid inorganic object that is an aggregate of minerals.

Define a rock

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48

A mineral has a definite chemical structure, while a rock does not have a definite chemical structure

 What is the key difference between a mineral and a rock?

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49

form deep within the Earth, form on the surface of the Earth

 What is the most important difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?

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50

Magma

What is the term for molten rock deep within the Earth?

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51

Lava

What is the term for molten rock that has extruded out of the Earth?

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52

Mafic and felsic igneous rocks

What is the classification of rocks based on their mineral composition?

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53

Phaneritic

What is the term for the coarse-grained texture of igneous rocks?

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54

Aphanitic

What is the term for the fine-grained texture of igneous rocks?

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Glassy rock/Extrusive Igneous Rocks

What type of rock has an extremely fine-grained texture due to rapid cooling?

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glassy texture black in color

What is obsidian known for in terms of texture and appearance?

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57

Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

What are the three main types of rocks?

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Basalt and gabbro

What are the two most important mafic igneous rocks?

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59

Basalt forms extrusively, while gabbro forms intrusively.

What is the primary difference between basalt and gabbro?

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Rhyolite and granite.

What are the two most important felsic igneous rocks?

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Slate is the parent rock of phyllite

 How are slate and phyllite related in terms of metamorphic rocks?

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is the process by which metamorphic rocks form primarily from heat.

Define contact metamorphism

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63

Angular

What is the technical term for irregular, jagged sediment shapes?

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Rounded

What is the term for sediments that have been eroded over a far distance?

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 Poorly sorted

What is the technical term for poorly sorted sediments within a rock?

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from the compacted organic matter of plants under high pressures.

How is anthracite formed?

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67

The rock cycle

What is the principle that describes how rocks continuously change from one type to another?

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68

is a rock that cannot be classified definitively as igneous or metamorphic due to its mixed formation.

What is migmatite, and why is its classification controversial?

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Foliated metamorphic rocks.

What is the term for rocks that have a folded shape due to asymmetrical regional metamorphism?

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70

is a clastic sedimentary rock, is a non-foliated metamorphic rock.

What is the difference between shale and hornfels in terms of classification and formation?

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71

is the process by which metamorphic rocks form primarily from chemical reactions.

 Define hydrothermal metamorphism

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Well sorted

What is the term for sediments that are all roughly the same size?

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clay/mud

What is the technical term for the smallest sediments?

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The Wentworth scale

What is the name of the sediment size scale?

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Chemical reactions

What is the key process for the formation of chemical sedimentary rocks?

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Chalk and coquina

What are the two main categories of biogenic sedimentary rocks?

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77

is the principle that describes how rocks continuously change from one type to another.

What is the rock cycle?

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78

 Petroleum, natural gas, and coal.

What are the three broad categories of fossil fuels?

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79

quantifies the melting-temperature spectrum for igneous rocks.

 Define the Bowen reaction series

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80

Felsic rocks have the least amount of metals, while mafic rocks have the most.

What is the most important difference between felsic and mafic igneous rocks?

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81

rock formed deep within the Earth

Define intrusive igneous rock.

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Gravels

What is the term for the largest sediments?

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Lithification

 What is the main process by which sedimentary rocks are formed?

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84

Clastic, chemical, and biogenic

What are the three broad categories of sedimentary rocks?

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85

 forms by changing a pre-existing rock due to heat, pressure, and chemical reactions.

Define metamorphic rock

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86

Non-foliated metamorphic rocks

What is the term for metamorphic rocks that do not have a folded shape?

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87

forms without a folded shape

 Define non-foliated metamorphic rock.

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88

is the process by which metamorphic rocks form primarily from chemical reactions.

Define hydrothermal metamorphism

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89

Oceans

What is the Earth mostly covered with?

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90

Felsic igneous rock

What is the primary composition of the continents?

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91

Rhyolite

What is the layer below the sedimentary rock in the continents?

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92

Mafic igneous rock

What type of rock is the ocean basin composed of?

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93

Rock, primarily silicate minerals

What is the primary composition of the mantle?

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94

Core

What is the innermost layer of the geosphere?

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95

Crust

What is the outermost layer of the geosphere and the thinnest layer of the lithosphere called?

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96

Metals

What is the Earth's core primarily composed of?

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97

Enormous pressure

What causes the metals in the Earth's core to remain solid despite the high temperatures?

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98

 Molten metals

What is the primary component of the outer core?

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Middle

What does the Greek root "meso-" mean?

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Asthenosphere

What layer of the mantle is weak and partially molten?

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