Psych Exam 1

studied byStudied by 13 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is psychology?

1 / 141

Tags and Description

Psychology

142 Terms

1

What is psychology?

The scientific study of mind and behavior

New cards
2

Mind

The private inner experience. This includes perception, thoughts, memories, and feelings.

New cards
3

Behavior

The observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals

New cards
4

What is science in terms of psychology?

A systematic process of answering questions about mind and behavior

New cards
5

The problem with the mind

How can someone dictate someone elses private, subjective experiences?

New cards
6

The problem with behavior

How can we say or attribute what motivates what we can see? How does behavior relate to subjective inner experiences?

New cards
7

What is a question philosophers has when they studied mind and behaviors?

Are cognitive abilities and knowledge inborn, or are they acquired only through experience?

New cards
8

Nativism (Plato)

The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn

New cards
9

Philosophical Empiricism

The philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience

New cards
10

Dualism

Mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior (they exist separately)

New cards
11

Materialism

The mind and body are one and the same (The mind is what the brain does)

New cards
12

Structuralism

Analyzes the mind by breaking it down to its basic components

New cards
13

Functionalism

The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment (Evolutionary approach)

New cards
14

Consciousness

A person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind

New cards
15

Introspection

The subjective awareness of one’s own experiences

New cards
16

The problem with introspection*

  1. Different people see different things

  2. The same person could see different things at different times

  3. People are often mistaken about their experiences

  4. A lot of events happen outside of our conscious awareness

New cards
17

Hysteria

A temporary loss of cognitive or motor function, usually as a result of an emotionally upsetting experience

New cards
18

Theory of neuroses

The mind defends against painful experiences by actively excluding them from conscious awareness

New cards
19

The topographic model*

The idea that the mind has an organization or architecture that overflows consciousness and can be described in terms of different levels or compartments

The unconscious: Only part of mind that exists at birth

The preconscious: Stuff we aren't aware off but that we can recall

The conscious awareness: The part of our mind that forms our waking lives

New cards
20

Behaviorism

The idea that psychology should only focus on the behavioral actions that we can observe

New cards
21

Humanistic Psychology

Emphasized the positive potential of human beings

New cards
22

Cognitive Neuroscience

An approach to psychology that link psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily experiences

New cards
23

Behavioral Neuroscience

The field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity

New cards
24

The bad reasons for believing

  1. Observation: Our eyes and ears see/hear what they want to

  2. Tradition: No matter how long ago it was made up; it is still the same amount of truth or untruth as the original story

  3. Authority: Because someone said so

  4. Intuition: Common sense differs from theoretical sense

New cards
25

Dogmatism

The tendency for people to cling to their assumptions

New cards
26

Dogma

A principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true

New cards
27

Empiricism

The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observations

New cards
28

Empirical

Based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic

New cards
29

The Scientific Method

A procedure for finding truth using empirical evidence

New cards
30

Theory

A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon

New cards
31

Hypothesis

A falsifiable prediction based off of a theory

New cards
32

Parsimony

The simplest theory that still explains all of the evidence

New cards
33

Observation

To use one’s senses to learn about the characteristics of an event or object

New cards
34

Two characteristics of measurement

  1. Define the property you wish to measure

  2. Find a way to detect that property

New cards
35

Operational definition of measurement

A description of an object in concrete, measureable terms

New cards
36

Instrument*

Anything that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers

New cards
37

Detect the property

An operational definition that has validity

New cards
38

Define the Property

Design an instrument that has reliability and power

New cards
39

Validity

The goodness with which a concrete event defines a property

New cards
40

Reliability

The tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing

New cards
41

Relationship between Validity and Reliability

An unreliable measure can’t be valid, but an invalid measure could be reliable

New cards
42

Demand characteristics

Participants want to please scientists, so they behave in the way they think scientists want them to

New cards
43

How to combat demand characteristics

  1. Observe people without their knowledge

  2. Measure something that is not easily controlled like pupil dilation or facial expression

  3. Don’t inform the participant of what is being studied (Blind studies and also considered to be ethically wrong)

  4. Make the study double-blind (Hides the groups and treatment conditions from participants and researchers)

New cards
44

Observer bias

When expectation influences observation. Researchers see what they want to if it helps their experiments.

New cards
45

Correlation

When variations in the value of one variable are in sync with variations in the value of the other

New cards
46

Correlation and Caustion

They do not equal each other

New cards
47

The Computation Theory of Mind

The nonphysical things in your mind exist physically but as configurations of symbols. The symbols are the physical status of bits of matter. It allows us to keep the mind stuff firmly in the physical realm.

New cards
48

Do neurons touch?

No, they don’t physically touch one another

New cards
49

How do neurons communicate?

They communicate via neurotransmitters at the synapse

New cards
50

Synapse

The region between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron

New cards
51

The 3 major types of neuron

Sensory neurons (gets information from the environment), motor neurons (control our muscular behavior), interneurons (connect neurons to other neurons)

New cards
52

The 2 stages of communication between neurons

Conduction (movement of an electric signal with a neuron), and transmission (movement of electrical signal between neurons)

New cards
53

Neurons

Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks

New cards
54

Components of a neuron

Dendrites (receive information), cell body (coordinates/processes information), Axon (carries information to other neurons, muscles, glands, etc.)

New cards
55

Myelin Sheath

Insulating layer of fatty material that is located on the axon of some neurons. It increases the speed of neural transmission.

New cards
56

Resting potential

The natural electric charge of a neuron. In this state a neuron has a net negative charge.

New cards
57

Action potential

An electric signal that is conducted along a neuron’s axon to a synapse

New cards
58

Refractory period

When the neuron has to return to original position before going through another electrical signal. (i.e. the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot start)

New cards
59

Terminal buttons

Knob-like structures branching out from the axon, they are filled with vesicles (bags) containing neurotransmitters

New cards
60

Presynaptic neuron

The sending neuron

New cards
61

Postsynaptic neuron

The receiving neuron

New cards
62

Receptor

Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter

New cards
63

6 main types of neurotrasmitter

Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Glutamate, GABA, Norepinephrine, Serotonin

New cards
64

Acetylcholine

Involved in a number of functions including voluntary motor function

New cards
65

Dopamine

Regulates motor behaviors, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal

New cards
66

Glutamate

Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brian

New cards
67

GABA

The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter

New cards
68

Norepinephrine

Involved in states of vigilance, or heightened awareness of dangers in the environment

New cards
69

Serotonin

Involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggressive behavior

New cards
70

Central nervous system

Consists of brain and spinal cord. Receives information from environment.

New cards
71

Peripheral nervous system

Connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles

New cards
72

Somatic nervous system (Part of peripheral nervous system)

A set of nerves that convey information between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system. We have conscious control over this system.

New cards
73

Autonomic nervous system (Part of peripheral nervous system)

A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands

New cards
74

Sympathetic nervous system (Part of the autonomic nervous system)

A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations

New cards
75

Parasympathetic nervous system (Part of the autonomic nervous system)

A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state

New cards
76

The 3 parts of the brain

The hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

New cards
77

The hindbrain

Coordinates information coming in and out of the spinal cord

New cards
78

The midbrain

Important for orientation and movement

New cards
79

The forebrain

Critical for complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions

New cards
80

Parts of the hindbrain

Medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, and pons

New cards
81

Parts of midbrain

Tectum and tegementum

New cards
82

Parts of the forebrain

Cerebral cortex and subcortical structure

New cards
83

Subcortical structure

The limbic system: hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland

New cards
84

Cerebral cortex

Divided into 2 hemispheres. Hemispheres are connected to one another by commissures.

New cards
85

Commissures

A bundle of axons that communicate between the two hemispheres

New cards
86

Corpus Callosum

Connects the two hemispheres and supports communication of information across them

New cards
87

The 4 lobes of the brain

Occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe

New cards
88

Occipital lobe

Processes visual information

New cards
89

Parietal lobe

Processes information about touch

New cards
90

Temporal lobe

Processes auditory information. Hearing, language, music, etc.

New cards
91

Frontal lobe

Processes movement, planning, thinking, memory, judgment, etc.

New cards
92

Ways to study the brain

Structural brain imaging (CT scans, MRIs), functional brain imaging (PET scan, fMRI)

New cards
93

Sensation

Stimulation of a sense organ. Getting the energy from the environment and turning it into electrical sensation.

New cards
94

Perception

The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation

New cards
95

Transduction

Sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system

New cards
96

Absolute threshold

Minimum intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus in 50% of trials

New cards
97

Just noticeable difference

Minimum change in a stimulus that we can perceive

New cards
98

Psychophysics

Simple studies that measure the strength of stimulus and the subjects sensitivity to that stimulus.

New cards
99

Weber’s Law

The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity

New cards
100

Sensory adaptation

Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7884 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(53)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard227 terms
studied byStudied by 81 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 66 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1189 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)