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just-world phenomenon:

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Psychology

128 Terms

1

just-world phenomenon:

the tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve.

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2

altruism:

when we act to promote someone else's welfare, even at a risk or cost to ourselves

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3

aggression:

a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to yourself, others, or objects in the environment.

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4

frustration-aggression hypothesis:

the theory, proposed in 1939 by John Dollard and colleagues, that (a) frustration always produces an aggressive urge and (b) aggression is always the result of prior frustrations.

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5

bystander effect:

a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when there are other people present.

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6

social loafing:

the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group

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7

social exchange theory:

people make decisions by consciously or unconsciously measuring the costs and rewards of a relationship or action, ultimately seeking to maximize their reward.

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8

reciprocity norm:

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

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9

conflict:

The interaction of interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving those goals

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10

social trap:

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

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11

ingroup vs. outgroup phenomenon:

ingroup has favoritism within those of their own group and perceive the outgroup as dangerous

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12

fundamental attribution error:

the tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people's behavior.

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13

diffusion of responsibility:

a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present.

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14

deindividuation:

The loss of personal identity and responsibility as a result of being in a crowd of people

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15

social responsibility norm:

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.

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16

Phillip Zimbardo:

1933-present; Field: social psychology; Contributions: proved that people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play; Studies: Stanford Prison Study-studied power of social roles to influence people's behavior.

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17

groupthink:

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.

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18

social facilitation:

The tendency to perform simple or well-practiced tasks better in the presence of others than alone.

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19

Soloman Asch:

Developed the line test to test for conformity- people conformed 33% of the time

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20

Stanley Milgram:

Student of Asch, shock experiments with the "teacher" and "learner", tested obedience (which varied based on circumstances in each experiment)

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21

foot-in-the-door technique:

people agree to a small action and then are more likely to agree to a larger one -Cialdini

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22

reciprocity:

a process of exchanging things with other people in order to gain mutual benefit.

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23

obedience:

tendency to comply with orders, implied or real, from someone perceived as an authority.

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24

conformity:

a change in a person's behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people.

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25

neurons

our body's nerve cells which make up the nervous system. For a neuron to fire, or communicate with another neuron, information must first be gathered in by the dendrites of the receiving neuron. From there, the information passes through the cell body to the axon.

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26

axon

wire like structure ending in the terminal button that extends from the cell body

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27

soma

cell body of a neuron

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28

dendites

input fibers that carry electrical signals into a neuron from connected cells.

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29

action potential

when a neuron transmits an electrical charge down its axon, which terminates in the release of chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters.

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30

myelin sheath

a fatty whitish insulation layer on the axon of some neurons that increases the speed of neural transmission.

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31

reuptake

the process by which neurotransmitter molecules that have been released at a synapse are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron that released them.

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32

endorphins

natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

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33

endocrine system

a system of glands that secretes hormones into the circulatory system. these hormones are directed to organs that control growth and development, reproduction, and body metabolism. it is a system that links the brain to these organs.

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34

pituitary gland

a gland located at the base of the brain producing hormones that control other glands and which affects metabolism, bone growth and sexual maturity.

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35

hormones

chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.

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36

neurotransmitters

are chemical messengers inside the body that carry messages between neurons

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37

glutamate

the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; important for learning and memory.

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38

dopamine

chemical that influences voluntary movement, learning, pleasure, memory,-is implicated in Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia; in Parkinson's disease a causes tremors, muscle spasms, increasing muscular rigidity; recently implicated in ADHD

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39

acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction.

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40

norepinephrine

a neurotransmitter important in controlling alertness, wakefulness, mood, and attention.

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41

GABA

an inhibitory neurotransmitter that also plays a role in muscle tone.

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42

serotonin

a neurotransmitter that regulates sleep, mood, appetite, and body temperature.

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43

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

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44

corpus callosum

large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

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45

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

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46

hypothalamus

regulates the autonomic nervous system by producing and releasing hormones.

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47

reticular formation

pencil shaped structure forming the core of the brain stem, arouses the cortex to keep the brain alert and attentive to new stimulation (brain stem)

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48

medulla

controls automatic (involuntary) functions of the body, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure

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49

spinal cord

voluntary, carries messages from sensory receptors in the body to the CNS, and more messages from the CNS to skeletal muscles.

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50

cerebellum

plays a role in motor control and movement including balance, subtle movement, and equilibrium.

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51

hippocampus

long-term memory formation, particularly declarative memories, or memories that can be purposely recalled like facts and events.

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52

amygdala

the center of emotion and motivations. responsible for fear responses and learning out of fearful situations. also involved in regulation of memory consolidation or the process of turning a memory into long-term memory.

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53

central nervous system

central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.

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54

peripheral nervous system

also called the "skeletal nervous system." the part of the system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). its sympathetic division arouses; while its parasympathetic division calms.

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55

sensation

any concrete, conscious experience resulting from stimulation of a specific sense organ, sensory nerve, or sensory area in the brain.

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56

perception

our recognition and interpretation of sensory information.

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57

bottom-up processing

This processing starts at the sensory receptors and works up to the brain, most of the information associated with bottom-up processing has to do with your five senses: sight 👁️, hearing 👂, smell 👃, taste 👅, and touch ✋.

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58

top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.

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59

absoute threshold

the smallest amount of stimulation needed for a person to detect that stimulus 50% of the time.

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60

just noticeable difference/difference threshold

the minimum level of stimulation that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. The

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61

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise").

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62

cocktail party effect

the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises

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63

selective attention

allows one to focus on certain specific sensory information, while ignoring other sensory input

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64

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder that disrupts the normal sleep-wake cycle.

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65

delta waves

occur during deep sleep (stage 4) and are associated with dreaming.

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66

sleep spindles

sudden bursts of rapid brain wave activity (stage 2)

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67

alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

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68

rem sleep

a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. (stage 5)

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69

circadian rhythm

our internal clock🕒, controlling our temperature and wakefulness in 24-hour cycles.

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70

manifest content

a dream includes the actual images, thoughts and content within the dream.

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71

latent content

the hidden psychological meaning of the dream

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72

sleep apnea

temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.

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73

night terrors

a sleep disorder that causes the sleeper to wake from NREM sleep suddenly with feelings of extreme fear, agitation, or dread

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74

insomnia

the feeling of inadequate or poor sleep because of one or more of the following: trouble falling asleep; trouble remaining asleep; awakening too early; or non-restorative sleep.

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75

wish fulfillment theory

dreams satisfy our own wishes - dreams provide a safety valve expressing otherwise unaccepted feelings; contain remembered content and a deeper layer of latent content; a hidden meaning

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76

information processing theory

concept that human beings actually process information that goes into the brain.

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77

physiological functioning theory

the belief that dreams serve a physiological function, providing the brain with periodic stimulation that may help develop and preserve neural pathways.

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78

James-Lange Theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

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79

Cannnon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

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80

Schachter-Singer Theory

A theory of emotion that states that both physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal must occur before an emotion is consciously experienced.

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81

Jean Piaget

Known for his theory of cognitive development in children

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82

schemas

Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.

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83

Assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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84

accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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85

sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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86

object permanence

the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view

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87

preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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88

conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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89

reversibility

principle that objects can be changed, but then returned back to their original form or condition

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90

concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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91

formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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92

Harry Harlow

1905-1981; Field: development; Contributions: realized that touch is preferred in development; Studies: Rhesus monkeys, studied attachment of infant monkeys (wire mothers v. cloth mothers)

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93

attachment

an emotional tie with another person

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94

Mary Ainsworth

developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment

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95

strange situation

a behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style

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96

Erik Erikson

Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development

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97

intermittent reinforcement

an operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement

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98

continuos reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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99

positive reinforcement

the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus

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100

negative reinforcement

increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs

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