GEAS: Chemistry

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Chemistry

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101 Terms

1

Chemistry

is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

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2

Scientific Method

is a systematic approach to research.

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3

Nx10^n

Scientific Notation

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4

Significant Figures

are the meaningful digits measured or calculated quantity.

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5

Accuracy

tells how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity that was measured.

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6

Precision

refers how closely two or more measurements of the same quantity agree with one another.

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7

Matter

is anything that occupies space and has mass.

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8

Substance

A classification of matter wherein there are definite constant properties

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9

Mixture

A classification of matter wherein there are two or more substances

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10

Element

A type of pure substances wherein it cannot be separated by any means

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11

Compound

A type of pure substances wherein two or more substances can be separated.

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12

Homogenous

a type of mixture that has the same proportions of its components in a given amount of sample.

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13

Heterogenous

a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout the mixture.

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14

Solid

is a state of matter wherein it has a definite shape and volume because the molecules that make it up the are packed closely together and move slowly

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15

Liquid

is a state of matter wherein it has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container.

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16

Gas

is a state of matter wherein it has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.

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17

Plasma

a state of matter which is made by heating gas until its electrons have sufficient energy to escape the hold of the positively charged nuclei.

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18

Bose-Einstein Condensate

is a state of matter which has the lowest absolute zero.

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19

Physical Property

is a characteristic of matter that can be observed and measured without changing the chemical identity of the sample.

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20

Chemical Property

is a characteristic of a particular substance that can be observed in a chemical reaction.

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21

Intensive Property

is a property of matter that depends only on the type of matter in a sample and not on the amount.

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22

Extensive Property

is a property that depends on the amount or density of matter in a sample.

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23

Sublimation

The process in which a solid changes directly into vapor without first forming a liquid.

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24

Liquid and Gas

two states of matter which occupies the whole space of available.

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25

Liquid and Gas

which two types of matter fall under the term fluids?

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26

Atom

is the basic building block of matter. It is the smallest particle of element.

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27

Atomos

The term used by Democritus which means uncuttable or inidivisible.

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28

Law of Conservation of Mass

A law which states that matter can be neither created nor destroyed.

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29

Joseph Proust’s Law of Definite Proportions

A law that states: different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass.

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30

Joseph Proust

is a French chemist who one who discovered the Law of Definite Proportions

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31

Law of Multiple Proportions

A law which states that two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the two masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers.

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32

Atomic Number

is the number of protons (or number of electrons) in the nucleus of each atom of an element.

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33

Z

Is the letter or symbol that denotes the Atomic Number of an element.

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34

Mass Number

is the total number or neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element.

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35

A

is the letter or symbol that denotes the mass number of an element.

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36

Mass Number

Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons = _____

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37

Mass Number

Atomic Number + Number of Neutrons = _____

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38

Isotopes

are atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

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39

Average mass of an element

the sum of the masses of its isotopes, each multiplied by its natural abundance.

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40

Mole

is the amount of pure substance containing the same number of chemical units, as there are atoms in exactly 12-grams of carbon-12.

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41

Avogadro’s Number

it is the number of units in one mole of any substance which is constantly equal to:

NA = 6.02x10^23 particles/mole

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42

Periodic Table

is a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together.

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43

Periods

are the horizontal rows of the periodic table.

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44

Group or Families

are the vertical rows of the periodic table.

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45

Niels Bohr

The concept that electrons revolve around the nucleus in specific paths called orbits or energy levels was proposed by

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46

24.31 amu

Naturally occurring magnesium consists of 78.7% of 24Mg, with atoms of mass 23.98504 amu, 10.13% of 25Mg, with atoms of mass 24.98584, and 11.17% 26Mg, with atoms of mass 25.98259 amu. Calculate the atomic mass of magnesium.

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47

50.4% & 49.6%

Calculate the percentage of bromine atoms that have a mass of 78.9183 amu and the percentage that have a mass of 80.9163 amu. The atomic mass of bromine is 79.909 amu, and these are the only two naturally occurring isotopes.

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48

Metal

is an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity

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49

Nonmetal

is an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

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50

Metalloids

is an element that is an intermediate of metals and nonmetals

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51

Cation

a positively charged ion, i.e. one that would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis.

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52

Anion

a negatively charged ion, i.e. one that would be attracted to the anode in electrolysis.

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53

Ion

is an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge.

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54

Chemical Formula

are formula used to express the composition of the molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols.

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55

Molecular Formula

shows the exact number or atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance.

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56

Molar Mass

is defined as the mass (in grams or kilograms) of 1 mole of units (such as atoms or molecules) of a substance.

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57

g/mol or kg/mol

the units of molar mass are

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58

Molecular Mass

it is sometimes called Molecular Weight and is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in the molecule.

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59

Percent Composition

is obtained by dividing the mass of each element in 1 mole of the compound by the molar mass of the compound and multiplying by 100 percent.

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60

Chemical reaction

is a process in which a substance (or substances) is changes into one or more new substances.

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61

Reacts with

In writing chemical equations, “plus” sign (+) means

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62

To yield

In writing chemical equations, “arrow” sign means

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63

Solution

is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances

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64

Solute

is the substance present in a smaller amount.

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65

Solvent

is the substance present in a larger amount.

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66

Aqueous Solution

is a solution in which the solute initially is a liquid or a solid and the solvent is water.

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67

Electrolyte

is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can contain electricity.

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68

Nonelectrolyte

does not conduct electricity when dissolved.

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69

85g

What is the mass of 5.00 mol of NH3?

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70

2.01x10^24

Calculate the number of particles on 56.7g of NH3?

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71

35%

Determine the percent composition of nitrogen in NH4NO3?

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72

Concentration of a Solution

is the amount of solute present in a given quantity if solvent or solution.

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73

Molar

or molar concentration, is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

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74

Dilution

is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one.

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75

Synthesis reaction

a type of chemical reaction that occurs when two or more reactants combine to form a single product.

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76

Decomposition reaction

is a reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances.

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77

Single Replacement

sometimes called a single displacement reaction, is a reaction in which one element is substituted for another element in a compound.

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78

Double Replacement

are reactions in which the positive and negative ions of two ionic compounds exchange places to form two new compounds.

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79

Molality

or molal concentration, is the amount of substance dissolved in a certain mass of solvent.

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80

Molarity

is the amount of substance in a certain volume of solution. It is defines as the moles of a solute per liters of a solution.

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81

Molarity

It is also known as the molar concentration of a solution.

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82

Acids

have sour taste, cause color changes in plant dyes, react with certain metals, and react with carbonates and bicarbonates.

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83

Acid

a chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red; typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid of this kind.

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84

Bases

have bitter taste, feel slippery, and cause color changes in plant dyes.

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85

Base

a substance that can accept hydrogen ions in water and can neutralize an acid.

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86

Neutralization

is a reaction between an acid and a base.

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87

Aqueous

acid-base reactions that produce water and a salt.

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88

Catalyst

A substance added to the solution to speed up chemical reactions

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89

2.0`

Calculate the molality of a solution containing 0.5 mol of solute in 250g of solvent.

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90

0.833

Calculate the molarity of 1.5 L of a 2.5 M solution after it has been diluted to a 4.50 L

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91

Carbonic Acid

The carbon dioxide is soluble in water. The acid formed when it dissolves is called

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92

Combination reaction

the reaction CaO + H2O to Ca(OH)2 is an example of

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93

7

A neutral solution has a pH of

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94

1.0

Calculate the pH of 0.100 M HCl

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95

Antoine Lavoisier

Debunked the phlogiston theory. Uncovered the truth in combustion. Names hydrogen and oxygen. Identified sulfur and predicted silicon. Published the first Chemistry book.

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96

Ampotheric

A substance that can act as both acid and base is called

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97

More than 7

The pH of an aqueous solution of a sodium acetate is

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98

Basicity

The number of hydrogen ions obtainable from a molecule of an acid is called

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99

Antoine Lavoisier

The Father of Modern Chemistry

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100

Dmitiri Mendeleev

A Russian Chemist who created the framework that became the modern periodic table, leaving gaps for elements that were yet to be discovered.

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