Anatomy chp 1

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Anatomy studies the ____ of the body whereas physiology studies the _____ of the body

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153 Terms

1

Anatomy studies the ____ of the body whereas physiology studies the _____ of the body

form and structures, functions

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2

2 major types of anatomy

microscopic, gross

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Microscopic anatomy examines ____, _____

structures invisible to the naked eye, specimens under a microscope

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4

Divisions of microscopic anatomy

cytology, histology

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cytology definition

the study of body cells and internal structures

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histology definition

study of tissues

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Macroscopic anatomy, aka _____

gross anatomy

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8

Macroscopic anatomy studies ____, _____

structures visible to the naked eye, specimens dissected for examination

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9

Macroscopic anatomy is divided into _____ , ____, _____, and _____ anatomy

systemic, regional, surface, comparative, embryology

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systemic anatomy definition

anatomy of each body system

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11

Regional anatomy definition

structures of body regions

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Surface anatomy definition

superficial anatomical markings and internal body structure

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comparative anatomy

anatomical similarities and differences in different species

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embryology definition

study of developmental changes from conception to birth

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15

Divisions of anatomy focused on diagnosis and research are_____ and ______

Pathologic, radiographic

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pathologic anatomy definition

macroscopic and microscopic anatomic changes resulting from disease

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Radiographic anatomy definition

internal structures visualized by scanning technology

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18

What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology

anatomy is the study of form and structure, physiology is the study of function

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19

How might knowledge of surface anatomy be important for a healthcare worker during a CPR emergency

Answer!

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20

Form and and function are interrelated, meaning that ______ them is the best way to study both

integrating

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21

Form _____ function

follow

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22

what is the meaning of ‘form follows function’

structures are designed to perform their specific function

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23

what is the meaning of “form allows function”

once we understand structure we can understand its functions

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24

compare and contrast how anatomists and physiologists describe the small intestine

anatomists describe it by form and structure, physiologists describe it by function

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25

common properties of all organisms

organization, metabolism, growth and development, responsiveness, regulation, reproduction

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26

metabolism can be divided into ____ and ____

anabolism, catabolism

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27

anabolism

small molecules joined to form larger ones

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catabolism

large molecules broken down into smaller ones

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metabolism definition

the sum of all chemical reactions in the body

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30

what does it mean for an organism to be responsive

sense and react to stimuli

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homeostasis definition

ability to maintain body structure and function

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what does reproduction mean

the ability to produce new cells AND produce sex cells

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33

levels of organization, from simple to complex

cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

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“tissues” definition

similar cells performing common functions

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35

organs can be defined as

multiple tissues working together

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organ systems can be defined as

multiple organs working together

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37

an organismal level of organization can be defined as

organ systems functioning together

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38

There are 11 systems of the human body. They are:

integumentary

skeletal

muscular

nervous

endocrine

cardiovascular

lymphatic

respiratory

urinary

digestive

male and female reproductive

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39

Study prompt: practice labelling of the 11 body system components

-

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40

basic inclusions of the muscular system

pectoralis major muscle

aponeurosis

tendons

sartorious muscle

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41

Basic inclusions of the nervous system

sense organs

brain

spinal cord

central nervous system

peripheral nervous system

nerves

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basic inclusions of the endocrine system

hypothalamus

pineal gland

pituitary gland

thyroid gland

thymus

adrenal glands

pancreas

kidney

testes

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43

Basic inclusions of cardiovascular systems

heart

blood vessels

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44

Basic inclusions of the respiratory system

nasal cavity

nose

pharynx

larynx

trachea

bronchi

lungs

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45

Basic inclusions of the lymphatic system

tonsils

cervical lymph nodes

thymus

auxiliary lymph nodes

thoracic duct

spleen

inguinal lymph nodes

popliteal lymph node

lymph vessel

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basic inclusions of the urinary system

kidney

ureter

urinary bladder

urethra

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47

basic inclusions of the digestive system

salivary gland

oral cavity

pharynx

esophagus

liver

stomach

large intestine

small intenstine

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48

Basic inclusions of the male reproductive system

ductus deferens

prostate gland

urethra

testes

seminal vesicle

epididymis

penis

scrotum

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49

basic inclusions of the female reproductive system

mammary glands

ovaries

uterus

uterine tube

vagina

external genitalia

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50

What does it mean if an organism is responsive and how does this characteristic relate to the survival of the organism

responsive = sense and react to stimuli

  • react to environment means adjust body system functions, assists in survival and adaptation to change

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51

what organ system is responsible for filtering blood and remaining waste products of blood as urine

urinary system

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52

What is anatomic position

upright stance

feet flat and parallel to floor

upper limbs at sides of the body

palms face anteriorly

head is level

eyes looking forward

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53

Slices of the body are called ____ or _____

sections, planes

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54

difference between a section and a plane

a section is an actual cut slice that exposes internal anatomy, a plane is an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body

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types of planes

coronal, transverse, sagittal, midsagittal, oblique

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56

Coronal plane, aka ____

frontal

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57

coronal plane is vertical, dividing the body into ____ and ____ halves

anterior, posterior

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58

transverse plane is cross-sectional, dividing the body horizontally into ____ and _____ parts

superior, inferior

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midsagittal plane is a vertical divide in the middle, dividing the body into ___ and ___ halves

left and right

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the difference between the sagittal and midsagittal plane

the sagittal is parallel to the mid sagittal but not equal down the middle

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the oblique plane passes through the body _____

at an angle

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study prompt- sketch and label the planes on the body

-

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anterior =

in front of

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posterior =

behind

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dorsal =

in the back

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ventral =

from the belly side

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true/false in 2 legged animals dorsal & posterior and Ventral & anterior are the same

true

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proximal =

closer to the point of reference

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distal =

farther from the point of reference

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medial =

towards the midline of the body

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lateral =

away from the midline of the body

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72

study prompt: label the relative positions on the body

-

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73

the human body is partitioned into two main regions: the ____ and ____ regions

axial, appendicular

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74

the axial region of the body includes these structures ____ and forms the ____ of the body

head, neck, and trunk

main vertical axis

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75

the appendicular region includes these structres

The upper and lower limbs

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The anterior view of the cephalic region: Frontal = _____, orbital = _____, nasal = _____, buccal = _____, oral = _____, mental = _____

forehead, eye, nose, cheek, mouth, chin

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the cervial region refers to the

neck

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the anterior view of the upper extremity: Deltoid = ___, brachial = ____, antecubital = ___, olecranal = ____, antebracial = ____, carpal = ____, dorsum = _____, manus = ____, palmar = _____, digital =_____

shoulder, arm, front of elbow, elbow, forearm, wrist, back of the hand, hand, palm, finger

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79

The anterior view of the thoracic region: axillary = ____, mammary = ____, pectoral = _____, sternal = ____

armpit, breast, chest, sternum

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80

the abdominal region refers to the _____

abdomen

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anterior view of the pelvic region: coxal = ___, inguinal = _____

hip, groin

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anterior view of the lower extremity: femoral = ____, patellar = ____, popliteal = _____, crucal = _____, sural = ____, calcaneal = ____, plantar surface = _____, pes = ____, tarsal = ____, dorsum = ____, digital = ____

thigh, knee cap, posterior of knee, leg (shin), calf, heel, sole, foot, ankle, of the foot, toe

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83

Posterior view of the cephalic region: cranial = ____, occipital = ____, auricular = ____

surrounding of brain, back of the head, ear

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84

posterior view of the thoracic region refers to

upper back area excluding spinal cord

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posterior view of vertebral region =

spinal cord

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posterior view of abdominal region =

lower back excluding spinal ridge

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posterior view of lumbar region =

lower back spinal region

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posterior view of sacral region =

Area between upper buttocks and lower back

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posterior view of gluteal region =

buttocks

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perineal region =

taint

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posterior view of the upper extremity: deltoid = ____, brachial = ____, antecubital = ____, olecranial = ______, antebrachial = ______, carpal = _____, dorsum of the hand = ____, manus = ____, palmar = ____, digital = _____

shoulder, arm, front of elbow, elbow, forearm, wrist, back of hand, hand, palm, finger

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92

posterior view of the lower extremity: femoral = ____, patellar = _____, popiliteal = ____, crucal = ____, sural = ____, calcaneal = ____, plantar surface = _____, pes = ____, torsal = ___, dorsum = ____, digital = ____

thigh, kneecap, posterior of knee, leg, calf, heel, sole, foot, ankle, back of foot, toe

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93

study prompt: label the different regions and areas on ben with washable marker ( or on print out)

-

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94

internal organs are housed within _____

cavities

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95

body cavities are named according to

the surrounding structures

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96

body cavitites are grouped into a _____ and ______

posterior aspect, ventral cavity

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97

a posterior aspect is ______

completely encased in bone

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98

is the brain within a posterior cavitites or ventral cavitiy

posterior aspect

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99

true/false posterior cavities are physically and developmentally distinct from ventral cavities

true

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100

the posterior cavity can be subdivided into the _____ and the _____

cranial cavity, vertebral canal

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