Chapter 3 - Compounds & the Mole

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Chemistry

144 Terms

1

H

Hydrogen

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2

He

Helium

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3

Li

Lithium

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4

Be

Beryllium

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5

B

Boron

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6

C

Carbon

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7

N

Nitrogen

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8

O

Oxygen

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9

F

Fluorine

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10

Ne

Neon

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11

Na

Sodium

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12

Mg

Magnesium

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13

Al

Aluminum

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14

Si

Silicon

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15

P

Phosphorous

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16

S

Sulfur

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17

Cl

Chlorine

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18

Ar

Argon

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19

K

Potassium

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20

Ca

Calcium

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21

Sc

Scandium, transition metal

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22

Ti

Titanium, transition metal

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23

V

Vanadium, transition metal

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24

Cr

Chromium, transition metal

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25

Mn

Manganese, transition metal

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26

Fe

Iron, transition metal

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27

Co

Cobalt, transition metal

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28

Ni

Nickel, transition metal

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29

Cu

Copper, transition metal

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30

Zn

Zinc, transition metal always 2+

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31

Ga

Gallium

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32

Ge

Germanium

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33

As

Arsenic

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34

Se

Selenium

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35

Br

Bromine

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36

Kr

Krypton

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37

Sr

Strontium

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38

Ag

Silver, transition metal, 1+ charge

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39

Sn

Tin

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40

I

Iodine

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41

Xe

Xenon

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42

Pt

Platinum, transition metal

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43

Au

Gold, transition metal

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44

Pb

Lead

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45

Rn

Radon

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46

Ra

Radium

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47

transition metals list

Scary Tiny Vicious Creatures Mean Females Come Nightly to Club Z

  • Sc

  • Ti

  • V

  • Cr

  • Mn

  • Fe

  • Co

  • Ni

  • Cu

  • Zn

  • Ag, Pt, Au

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48

diatomic elements

Elements that naturally form pairs. Their pure form is as two-atom molecules. Examples include hydrogen (H₂), nitrogen (N₂), oxygen (O₂), fluorine (F₂), chlorine (Cl₂), bromine (Br₂), and iodine (I₂).

HOFBrINCl

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49

ions form when…

atoms or molecules gain or lose electrons

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50

neutral sodium atom transforming to a sodium atom

Na → Na^+ + e^-

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51

neutral oxygen atom transforming into an oxygen ion

O + 2e^- → O^2-

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52

Is there a change in the number of protons when an ion forms?

No

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53

ionic compound

  • formed through the transfer of electrons between atoms

  • consists of positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) held together by electrostatic forces

  • salt, electrolyte

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54

ionic compound examples

  • sodium chloride (Na^+ Cl^-)

  • calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

  • sports drinks = sugar + salt water (electrolyte)

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molecules vs ions

  • molecules and atoms typically do not have a charge

  • ions have a positive or negative charge because they are extra greedy with electrons

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56

monatomic cations

  • positive ions formed from a single atom

  • example: sodium ion (Na+).

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naming monatomic cations

  • Just the names of the element

  • Groups 1 & 2 (+1 & +2)

  • Add roman numerals to tell you the charge for transition metals (groups 3-12)

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58

Na+ name

Sodium

  • monatomic cation

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59

K+ name

Potassium

  • monatomic cation

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60

Mn^3+ name

Manganese (III)

  • monatomic cation, transition metal

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61

common cations

  • Column 1: 1+ charge

  • Column 2: 2+ charge

  • Zn (Zinc): 2 electrons

  • Ag (Silver): 1+ charge

    • (NH4)^+ (Ammonium): exception, polyatomic cation

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common anion

Hydroxide anion: HO-

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63

If you had 2 ammonium molecules…

(NH4)^+ sub 2

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64

monatomic anion

  • negative ions formed from a single atom

  • example: (I^-), iodine ion, iodide

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65

naming monatomic anions

  • add -ide to element name

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F- name

Fluoride

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67

H- name

Hydride

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68

O^2- name

Oxide

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69

N^3- name

Nitride

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70

polyatomic ions

  • formed when atoms of different elements combine and gain or lose electrons

  • this group of atoms has a charge and acts as a single unit

  • most are grouped with oxygen and have a negative charge

  • examples:

    • sulfate (SO4^2-)

    • nitrate (NO3^-)

    • carbonate (CO3^2-)

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naming polyatomic ions

  • add -ate if there is more of the second element (3)

  • add -ite if there is less of the second element (2)

  • add per- if there is even more of the second element (4)

  • add hypo- if there is even less of the second element (1)

  • ensure you balance charges

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72

NO2^- name

nitrite

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73

NO3^- name

nitrate

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74

SO4^2- name

sulfate

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75

SO3^2- name

sulfite

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76

ClO4^- name

  • halogen

  • perchlorate

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77

ClO3^- name

chlorate

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78

ClO2^- name

chlorite

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79

ClO^- name

hypochlorite

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80

Find the formula for Sodium Sulfide

Na^+, S^2-

  • you need 2 Na^+ to balance 1 S^2-, you want the charges to be equal

Na2S

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81

Find the formula for Iron (II) Oxide

Fe^2+, O^2-

FeO

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82

binary molecular compounds

don’t begin with a metal like ionic compounds

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systematic naming for binary molecular compounds

  • the first word: the name of the first element in the formula, with a Greek prefix if necessary

    • the second word: Greek prefix, stem of the name of the 2nd element, and the suffix -ide

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Greek prefixes

  • 2: di-

  • 3: tri-

  • 4: tetra-

  • 5: penta-

  • 6: hexa-

  • 7: hepta-

    • 8: octa-

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85

P4O6 is a…

binary molecular compound, we know by the fact that there are numbers next to both elements

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86

P4O6 name

tetraphosphorous hexoxide

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common diatomic acids

  • HF, HCl, HBr, HI, HCN, H2S

  • In water, acid form b/c of hydro-

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naming diatomic acids

  • hydro- element, add -ic & acid

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89

HF

Hydrofluoric acid

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90

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

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91

HBr

Hydrobromic acid

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92

HI

Hydroiodic acid

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93

HCN

Hydrocyanic acid

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94

H2S

Hydrosulfiric acid

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95

Oxoacids

polyatomic ions with Hydrogen

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96

naming oxoacids

  • if polyatomic ion ends in -ate, change to -ic and add acid

    • if polyatomic ion ends in -ite, change to -ous and add acid

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97

HNO3 name

Nitrate → Nitric acid

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98

HNO2 name

Nitrite → Nitrous acid

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99

H2SO4 name

Sulfate → Sulfuric acid

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100

H2SO3 name

Sulfite → Sulfurous acid

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