Chapter 1

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Anatomy

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Tags and Description

122 Terms

1

Anatomy

Study of the structure of body parts

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2

Physiology

The study of body function

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3

Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy

the study of large, visible structures

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4

Regional Anatomy

looks at all structures in a particular area of the body

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5

System Anatomy

looks at just one system

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6

Surface Anatomy

looks at internal structures as they relate to overlying skin

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7

Microscopic Anatomy

deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye

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8

Cytology

microscopic study of cells

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9

Histology

microscopic study of tissues

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10

Developmental Anatomy

studies anatomical and physiological development throughout life

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11

Embryology

study of developments before birth

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12

Chemical Level

atoms, molecules, and organelles

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13

Cellular Level

single cell

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14

Tissue Level

groups of similar cells

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15

Organ Level

contains two or more types of tissues

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16

Organ System Level

organs that work closely together

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17

Organism Level

all organ systems combined to make the whole organism

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18

Maintaining Boundaries

Seperation between internal and external environments

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19

Maintaining Boundaries

Plasma membranes seperate cells

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20

Maintaining Boundaries

Skin seperates organism from environment

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21

Movement

Muscular sysytem

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22

Contractility refers to

Movement

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23

Responsiveness

ability to sense and respond to stimuli

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24

Responsiveness

withdrawl reflex (prevents injury)

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25

Responsiveness

breathing rate changes

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26

Digestion

absorbtion of simple molecules into blood

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27

Metabolism

summ of all chemical reaction

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28

Catabolism

breakdown of molecules such as proteins and amino acids

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29

Anabolism

synthesis of molecules such as protein and amino acids

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30

Excretion

removal of wastes such as nitrogenous wastes, carbon dioxide, fecal matters, etc.

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31

Reproduction

division of cells for growth or repair

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32

Carbohydrates

major source of energy

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33

Proteins

needed for cell building and source of energy

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34

Fats

long term energy storage

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35

Minerals annd vitamins

involved in chemical reactions

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36

Normal body temp

37 degrees Celsius

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37

Homestasis

the maintenance of relitiveley stable internal conditions

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38

Homestasis

state of equilibrium

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39

Nervous and endocrine systemms play a major role in

Homestasis

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40

Variables

factors that can change

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41

Receptor

senses environment and responds to stimuli

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42

Control Centers

recieve input from receptors and determine appropriate responses

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43

Effectors

revieve output from control center and respond (reduces stimuli)

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44

Homeostatic Imbalances

disrupt organ function and may cause damage to the body including death

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45

Standard Anatomical Position

Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body

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46

Directional Terms

describe one body structure in relation to another body structure

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47

Superior

above

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48

Inferior

below

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49

Anterior

toward the front

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50

Posterior

toward the back

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51

Medial

toward the center

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52

Lateral

toward the side

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53

Ipsilateral

located on the same side

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54

Contralateral

located of the opposite side

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55

Intermediate

between medial and lateral

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56

Proximal

closer to the trunk

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57

Distal

further from the trunk

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58

Trunk

center of body

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59

Superficial

toward the surface

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60

Deep

further from the surface

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61

Axial

head, neck, trunk

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62

Appendicular

limbs

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63

Sagittal Plane

divides body vertically into right and left parts

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64

Sagittal Plane

Produces sagittal section

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65

Midsagittal (median) Plane

when cut is made perfectly on midline

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66

Parasagittal Plane

When cut was off centered (not on midline)

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67

Frontal (coronal) Plane

divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts (front and back)

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68

Frontal (coronal) Plane

produces a frontal or coronal section

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69

Transverse (horizontal) plane

divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts (top and bottom)

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70

Transverse (horizontal) plane

produces a cross section

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71

Oblique section

result of cuts at an angle

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72

Cephalic

head

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73

Orbital

eye/cavity

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Mental

chin

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75

Cervical

neck

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76

Thoracic

chest

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77

Sternal

sternum

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78

Axillary

arm pit

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79

Mammary

breast

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80

Abdominal

Abdomen

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81

Umbilical

Navel

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82

Pelvic

Below abdomin/pelvic

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83

Inguinal

Pubic

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84

Acromial

tip of shoulder

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85

Brachial

arm

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86

Antecubital

front of elbow

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87

Olecranon

elbow

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Antebrachial

forearm

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89

Digital

finger

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90

Coxal

hip

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91

femoral

thigh

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92

Patellar

knee

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93

Popliteal

back of knee

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94

Crural

leg

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95

Sural

calf

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96

Fibular(peroneal)

lateral sid eof leg

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97

pedal

foot

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98

tarsal

ankle

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99

Calcaneal

hill

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100

Metatarsal

instep of foot

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