HPNU 2050 Final Exam

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what is the definition of nutrition?

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Nutrition

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1

what is the definition of nutrition?

science of food, relationship to health and disease, metabolism

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2

what is the leading cause of death?

heart disease

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3

what is the second leading cause of death?

cancer

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4

how many calories from protein?

4

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5

how many calories from CHO?

4

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6

how many calories from fat?

9

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7

how many calories from alcohol?

7

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8

what are the components of the scientific method?

observation, ask question, form hypothesis, experiment, look at results

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9

what are phytonutrients?

plant chemical nutrients

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10

what are zoonutrients?

animal chemical nutrients

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11

what is the DRI?

dietary reference intake; process to figure out how much of a certain nutrient you need

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12

what is the RDA?

recommended dietary allowance; not required but recommendation that covers 97-98% of population

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13

what is the EAR?

estimated average; applies to about 50% of population; mean of a nutrient

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14

what is the AI?

adequate intake; used when RDA is not available

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15

what is the UL?

upper limit; tolerable upper limit

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16

what is the ADMR for CHO?

45-65%

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17

what is the ADMR for PRO?

10-35%

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18

what is the ADMR for FAT?

20-35%

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19

what are the proportions of food on myplate?

half fruits and vegetables

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20

What are the two classifications of carbohydrates?

Simple and complex

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21

what are the monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose, galactose

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22

what are the disaccharides?

sucrose, lactose, maltose

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23

what makes up lactose?

1 glucose and 1 galactose

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24

what makes up sucrose?

1 glucose and 1 fructose

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25

what makes up maltose?

2 glucoses

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26

What type of bonding do amylose and amylopectin have?

Amylose= alpha 1-4 bonds

Amylopectin= alpha 1-6 bonds with branches

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27

what are soluble fibers?

lowers cholesterol and dissolves in water; inside of an apple, applesauce, beans, oatmeal

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28

what are insoluble fibers?

reduce the risk of colon cancer and do not dissolve in water; nuts and seeds, vegetable stalks

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29

what is the number for fasting blood glucose? pre-diabetic? diabetic?

70-99

120-124

125 and above

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30

what does glucagon do?

increases blood glucose

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31

what does insulin do?

decreases blood glucose

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32

where are glucagon and insulin produced?

pancreas

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33

what is the storage form of glucose in the body?

glycogen

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34

which type of diabetes is more common?

type 2 diabetes (80% due to obesity)

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35

what is protein sparing?

eating enough carbohydrates to spare protein to build, repair, enzymes, hormones, and transport

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36

What do cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and norepinephrine do to blood glucose?

They all increase it

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37

What does the body run on?

It runs on glucose

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38

which fatty acid raises cholesterol?

saturated fatty acids

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39

what food source is highest in saturated fat?

animal products (fish has the lowest)

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40

what is hydrogenation?

take a liquid fat and make it solid at room temperature by adding hydrogens to it to make a trans fat

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41

how do trans fatty acids affect lipoproteins

increase LDL and decrease HDL

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42

what does omega 3 do?

dilate and open vessels, do not form blood clots, reduce cardiovascular disease and strokes

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43

what does omega 6 do?

vasoconstriction, more blood clots, increase cardiovascular tissue

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44

What is the difference between the receptor-mediated uptake of cholesterol and the scavenger pathway?

-LDL has a B100 on it and can attach to a B100 receptor in the liver and can go into a cell

-Uptake of extra LDL and turns it into foam cells, which later turns into plaque

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45

what are LDLs?

low density lipoproteins composed mostly of cholesterol

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46

what are HDLs?

high density lipoproteins that pick up excess cholesterol and take it back to the liver, composed of protein mostly

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47

what are chylomicrons?

mostly composed of triglycerides, come from the gut and have b48 on it

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48

what are VLDLs?

very low density lipoproteins composed mainly of triglycerides that come out of the liver and into circulatory system to from LDLs

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49

what is LPL-lipoprotein lipase?

enzyme that takes of triglycerides from chylomicrons and VLDL

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50

what is the recommendation for saturated fat?

Less than 10%

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51

what is the recommendation for monounsaturated fat?

up to 20%

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52

what is the recommendation for polyunsaturated fat?

up to 10%

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53

which form of fat do we eat and store in the body?

triglycerides

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54

what are desirable blood cholesterol levels?

200mg/dL or below

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55

what is the suggested intake of dietary cholesterol?

300 mg

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56

What levels of HDL do you want?

-You typically want higher than 40

-60 or above is a protective effect

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57

What levels of LDL do you want?

-Below 100 is optimal

-Desirable is below 130

-High is 160-189

-Very high is 190 and above

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58

where does protein digestion begin?

stomach

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59

What pancreatic enzymes are used to digest proteins in the small intestines?

Trypsinogen and chymotrypsin

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60

What foods contain all 9 essential amino acids?

Animal proteins, soy, and quinoa

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61

What are the semi-essential amino acids?

Cysteine and tyrosine

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62

what is the protein requirement?

0.8 grams per kg of body weight

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63

how many kg in one pound?

2.2 kg

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64

what is the role of DNA in protein synthesis?

DNA holds the code which is copied on mRNA, mRNA lines up amino acids to make protein

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65

what distinguishes the differences in amino acids?

R group

20 different AA’s, so 20 different R groups

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66

which amino acid turns on muscle protein synthesis?

leucine

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67

what is transamination?

transferring the amine group to another carbon group to make another amino acid

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68

why is transamination important?

essential to make non-essential amino acids

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69

what are two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein

beans and ricepeanut butter and breadpasta and seeds

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70

what is the protein intake of most americans?

excess

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71

what foods contain all 9 essential amino acids?

animal products

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72

what happens when you consume too much protein?

stored as fat

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73

what are villi and function?

fingerlike projections that produce enzymes to digest food coming by

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74

how long do gut cells survive?

2-4 days

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75

where does most digestion of the food occur?

small intestine and duodenum and upper jejunum

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76

where does glycolysis start and end?

starts with glucose and ends with 2 pyruvate (occurs in cytosol)

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77

where do the fatty acids enter into the krebs cycle?

at acetyl co-a

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78

what is beta oxidaton?

taking fatty acid chain and chopping it off 2 carbons at a time

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79

what is the electron transport chain?

where ATP is generated in the mitochondria

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80

what is gluconeogensis? what substrate is used to fuel it?

-making new glucose from proteins, turned on when you haven't eaten enough carbs or starvation mode

-protein

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81

what is the rate limiting step in the Krebs cycle?

OAA

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82

how is metabolism regulated?

enzymes, hormones, concentration of ATP and ADP

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83

What is the best food source of Thiamin?

Pork

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84

what is a food source of B12?

animal products

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85

what is the function of Vitamin C?

formation of collagen, immune system

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86

which vitamin has a function of being an antioxidant?

Vitamin E

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87

What vitamin taken in large amounts causes permanent nerve damage?

Vitamin B6

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88

what vitamin is associated with neural tube defects?

folate

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89

what are the functions of B12?

activates folate and maintains myelin sheath

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90

what vitamin is necessary to avoid night blindness?

Vitamin A

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91

what is a classic sign of ariboflavinosis?

cracks on corner of mouth

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92

which vitamin controls calcium uptake from the intenstines?

Vitamin D

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93

which vitamin is synthesized by the intestinal tract?

Vitamin K

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94

what vitamin is necessary for blood clotting?

Vitamin K

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95

peak bone mass occurs at what age range?

14-25

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96

what percentage of calcium is in the bones and teeth?

99%, other 1% is in the blood

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97

what food source of calcium has the highest bioavailability?

dairy

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98

who is more likely to develop osteoporosis?

women, post menopause, petite, history, ethnicity, alcohol, smoking, calcium intake

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99

what compounds prevent calcium from being absorbed?

oxalic acid; leafy greens (spinach)

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100

what are the two types of bone that osteoporosis effects?

cortical and trabecular

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