Neuro test 2 (slides and important info)

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Neural communications are active over

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1

Neural communications are active over

Millimeters

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2

What is the speed of action for Neural communications

milliseconds

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3

What is the spatial extent of Neural communications

precise

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4

What is the effect of Neural communications

All or none

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5

Hormonal communications are active over

meters

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6

What is the speed of action for Hormonal communications

minutes/hours/days

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7

What is the spatial effect of Hormonal communications

diffuses

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8

What is the effect of Hormonal communications

Graded

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9

What does the male orgasm lead to the activation of?

The Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)

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10

What does the female orgasm lead to the activation of?

Activation of deep cerebellar nuclei and inhibition of orbitofrontal cortex

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11

What is common in both sexes when it comes to sex, smell, aggression, and emotions?

The medial amygdala

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12

For males, which part of the brains size is correlated with sexual activity?

Sexually dimorphic nucleus

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13

For females, which part of the brain is responsible for receptivity to male advances?

The Ventromedial hypothalamus

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14

Which neurotransmitter promotes sexual activity and behaviour?

Dopamine

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15

Which neurotransmitter decreases sex drive and impairs sexual ability?

Serotonin

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16

When are organizing effects likely to take place?

Before or just after birth

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17

How long do organizing effects take place?

Lifelong thing

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18

Women have greater grey matter in which areas?

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the Superior temporal gyrus

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19

Which hemisphere is thicker in men than women?

The right hemisphere

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20

Women are better are multitasking because of what reason?

They are better connected from the left to the right

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21

What brain region is smaller in homosexual men than in heterosexual men?

INAH3

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22

High estrogen levels associated with what?

Depressed spatial ability and Enhanced speech and manual skill tasks

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23

Which gene drives the development of testes?

SRY Gene

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24

What is the main difference between male and female sexual response curves?

Males have a refractory phase, which creates a delay between orgasm, whereas females do not have a refractory phase

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25

How many levels of sex determination are there?

Seven

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26

What is the first level of sex determination?

Chromosomal Sex

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27

What is the second level of sex determination?

Gondal sex

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28

What is the third level of sex determination?

Internal Sex Organs

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29

What is the fourth level of sex determination?

External Sex Organs

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30

What is the fifth level of sex determination?

Brain sex

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31

What is the sixth level of sex determination?

Gender Identity

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32

What is the seventh level of sex determination?

Gender Preference

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33

Testosterone during second trimester increases cerebral asymmetry via accelerated growth of which hemisphere?

Right hemisphere

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34

What brain region is smaller in homosexual men than in heterosexual men?

INAH3 (aka Sexual Dimorphic Nucleus)

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35

What brain region is the site of primary activation during orgasm?

VTA

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36

What is Hypovolemic Thirst stimulated by?

low extracellular/intravascular volume (sweating, bleeding, loss of volume not the concentration)

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37

What is Osmotic Thirst stimulated by?

high extracellular solute concentration (why you get thirsty after eating something salty, change in concentration not in volume)

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38

What area does angiotensin II act on?

The subfornical organ (SFO)

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39

What hormone is released in response to hypovolemia?

Vasopressin and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (same hormone)

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40

Tom fell while he was running and got a fairly large cut. He would likely experience which of the following?

Hypovolemic thirst and increased blood pressure

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41

_________________ is triggered by low extracellular/intravascular volume

Hypovolemic thirst

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42

_________________ is triggered by high extracellular solute concentration

Osmotic thirst

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43

What neuron does leptin target to inhibit from secreting neuropeptides?

AgRP neurons

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44

POMC/ CART neurons produce what to inhibit appetite and stimulate metabolism?

Pro-opiomelanocortin and CART

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45

What is the part of the brain that activates when experiencing disgust?

Insula

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46

At what age is metabolism at its peak?

Birth to age 1

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47

The OVLT cell membrane opens what ion channel in response to osmotic thirst?

Na

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48

What organ is insulin made by?

Pancreas

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49

What is the cellular mechanism of osmotic thirst?

Water pass through the membrane, high solute concentration outside

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50

What detects changes in blood volume?

Baroreceptors

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51

Which part of the brain is responsible for making us feel hungry?

Lateral Hypothalamus

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52

When are ghrelin levels at their highest and lowest points, respectively?

While fasting; While eating

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53

What is one common outcome of patients with either VMH or LH lesions?

Weight stabilizes to a new baseline

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54

What role does leptin play in the mechanism of weight regulation by the NPY/AgRP and POMC/CART neurons?

Leptin stimulates POMC neurons and inhibits AgRP neurons

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55

What are some of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa

Refusal to maintain body weight, Fear of weight gain, Body image disturbance

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56

Teenagers with anorexia have a larger what?

insula and orbitofrontal cortex

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57

What are some symptoms for bullmia?

Recurrent binge eating, Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior (e.g. purging) at least 2x/wk for 3 months

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58

What does the lateral hypothalamus do?

Makes us feel hungry (lesion would make you feel not hungry most of the time, leading to a weight drop)

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59

What does the Ventromedial hypothalamus do?

Tells you when you are full (lesion would mean you would overeat because you can’t tell, making it so that you are more likely to be obese + have a lot more weight gain)

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60

VMH lesions destroy what?

anorexigenic (stops making you hungry) PVN

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61

LH lesions destroy what?

orexigenic (makes you hungry) LHA

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62

What do NPY/AgRP Neurons do?

Stimulate appetite and lower metabolism, leading to weight gain

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63

What do POMC/CART Neurons do?

Inhibit appetite and raise metabolism, leading to weight loss

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64

Leptin is produced by what?

Fat cells (then get secreted into the bloodstream)

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65

What is Prader-Willi syndrome?

a genetic disease that causes persistently elevated ghrelin levels leading to her continuously feeling hungry

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66

People with obesity are what?

leptin-resistant

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67

What is ghrelin?

Released by stomach and gut endocrine cells to stimulate appetite

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68

When do ghrelin levels rise?

During fasting

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69

When do ghrelin levels fall?

after eating

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70

What is glucose

The main body fuel

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71

What are lipids?

Long term stored in fat tissue

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72

When is the metabolism slow?

ages 1 to age 20

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73

When is the metabolism in plateu?

from age 20 to age 60

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74

When does metabolism fall by 1% every year?

From age 60 onwards

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75

POMC/CART neurons in the hypothalamus:

Inhibit appetite and raise metabolism

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76

People with Antisocial Personality Disorder would have

Less Gray matter in the PFC

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77

Where would you expect to find the smallest 2-point discrimination?

Finger Tips

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78

Activation of which brain region results in analgesic effects:

Periaqueductal Gray

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79

What part of the auditory pathway is vital for sound localization?

Superior Olive

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80

Someone with a lesion to Broca’s Area:

Would be able to comprehend language but not produce speech

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81

From outermost to innermost, what is the order of the ossicles?

Malleus, incus, stapes

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82

Which of the following is due to damage to the cochlea?

Sensorineural deafness

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83

What is released by the stomach, as shown here? (in response to hunger)

Ghrelin

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84

Steven was shot in the leg and was bleeding heavily. He felt very thirsty. Steven is experiencing _____ thirst due to decreased blood flow signals detected by ______.

Hypovolemic, subfornical organ

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85

What are osmosensory neurons?

Detects changes in sodium concentration

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86

The posterior pituitary secretes

Vasopressin, oxytocin

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87

Which two brain areas are observed to be larger in gay

men as compared to homosexual men?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus, anterior commissure

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88

A delta fibers also carry information from _____

TRP2

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89

TRP2 respond to ____

high temperature

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90

C fibers carry information from______

CMR1 & TRPV1

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91

CMR1 respond to

low temperature

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92

TPRVI responds to

moderate temperature

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93

Most sensory pathways pass through the ______ to end in the _______

Thalamus

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94

Most sensory pathways end in the _______

cerebral cortex

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95

Low frequency sound location is coded by ______

Latency

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96

Latency differences are coded by the medial superior olive

the medial superior olive

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97

Lesions to the angular gyrus would cause what effect?

Patient able to speak and understand, but not read aloud

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98

Your gonadal sex is primarily determined by ________.

Development of testes

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99

What hormone is associated with Cushing’s disease?

ACTH

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100

Angiotensin II results in?

Vasopressin (ADH) release and Triggers drinking via circumventricular organs

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