Pathophysiology chapter 2

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What are the 4 ways cells can adapt

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Medicine

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1

What are the 4 ways cells can adapt

atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia

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2

__ is not true cellular adaption

dysplasia

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3

Organs in where atrophy is more common

heart, skeletal muscles, secondary sex organs, brain

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4

decrease in cell size

atrophy

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5

atrophy physiologically occurs in the __

thymus

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6

pathological causes of cell atrophy

decrease in workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition

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7

Atrophied muscle cells contain less

mitochondria, ER, myofilaments

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8

In atrophy amino acid reuptake is

reduced

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9

what is an increase in cell size

hypertrophy

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10

Pregnancy can cause __ of the cardiac muscle

hypertrophy

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11

Pathological causes of hypertrophy

hypertension, problematic valves, accumulation of proteins in cell compartments

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12

Cell adaption where an increased number of mitotic division triggers DNA synthesis

hyperplasia

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13

hyperplasia often occurs along with

hypertrophy

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14

hyperplasia will not occur in

cardiac muscle

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15

2 types of physiological hyperplasia

compensatory and hormonal

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16

compensatory hyperplasia

allows organs to regenerate

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17

hormonal hyperplasia

replaces lost tissue and encourages new growth, occurs in estrogen dependent organs

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18

pathological hyperplasia can occur

after menopause

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19

cell adaption from one type of mature cell type to a less mature cell

metaplasia

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20

What happens in GI tract metaplasia after acid reflux

squamous cells are replaced by columnar cells

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21

t/f metaplasia is reversible if the trigger is removed or lessened

true

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22

metaplasia if often connected to

tissue damage, repair, and regeneration

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23

t/f dysplasia is true cellular adaption

false

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24

t/f dysplasia always indicates cancer

false

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25

two places where dysplastic changes are frequently found

cervical and respiratory epithelial tissue

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26

dysplasia is often associated with

neoplastic growths adjacent to cancer

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27

atypical hyperplasia in breast tissue is a strong indicator of

breast cancer

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28

t/f if inciting stimulus is removed dysplasia can be reversed

true

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29

some types of cellular injury include

necrosis, apoptosis, pathological calcification, reversible, irreversible, active cell injury

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30

which is worse for the surrounding cells apoptosis or necrosis

necrosis

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31

causes of cellular injury

hypoxia, reperfusion injury, free radicals, toxic chemicals, infectious agents, physical and mechanical factors, immunologic reaction, genetic factors, nutritional imbalances, physical trauma

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32

the most common type of cellular injury

hypoxia

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33

cellular injury caused by lack of oxygen, loss of hemoglobin, leads to ischemia and inflammation

hypoxia

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34

massive amounts of superoxide and peroxide, possibly caused by ishcemia, leads to pH changes, gap junction changes, Calcium overload, and even cell death

reperfusion injury

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35

one unpaired electron that ellicits bond damage in proteins lipids and carbohydrates

free radical cell damage

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36

cell damage from carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals

toxic chemical cell damage

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37

altering nucleus and plasma membrane via immune and inflammatory pathways

infectious agent cell injury

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38

cell damage from climate change, temperature change, atomspheric pressure changes, ionizing radiation, or noise

physical and mechanical cell injury

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39

steps to cell injury that lead to cell death

atp depletion, failure of active transport mechanisms, cellular swelling, detachment of ribosomes, cessation of protein synthesis, vacuolation, leakage of digestive enzymes, lysis of plasma membrane, death

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40

atp depletion step

sodium influx with cellular swelling because atpase pump is no longer working,

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41

failure of active transport

increased intracellular sodium and calcium, activation of enzymes that damage membrane protein atp and nucleic acids

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42

cellular swelling step

influx of water due to influx of sodium

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43

detachment of ribosomes

detachment of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum due to calcium influx

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44

cessation of protein synthesis

caused by mitochondrial swelling from calcium accumulation

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45

vacuolation

lysosome swelling, formation of vacuole in cytoplasm

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46

leakage of digestive enzymes from lysosomes

autodigestion of intracellular structures

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47

ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by

oxidative stress, free radicals damage membrane, mitochondrial pores open

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48

effect of radicals on mitochondria

dysfunction and decreased antioxidants

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49

chemical injury of the cell usually happens to the

plasma membrane

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50

carbon monoxide

colorless and odorless gas that produces hypoxic injury, reduces oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin

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51

carbon tetrachloride

common in dry cleaning, produces free radicals that damage p-450 enzyme

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52

lead exposure

causes learning and behavior problems in children, speech and hearing problems, brain and nervous system damage, slowed growth development, kidney problems

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53

treatment of lead

chelation therapy

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54

ethanol cell damage

results in folate deficiency

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55

ethanol is metabolized in

the liver

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56

t/f up to a certain point ethanol can have a protective effect on cardiovascular system

true

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57

acute alcoholism affects___ chronic alcoholism effects

CNS, liver and stomach

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58

two major mercury sources

fish and healthcare equipment

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59

sharp force injury

cutting or piercing

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60

incised wound

longer than deep, no tissue bridging or undermining

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61

stab wounds

deeper than long

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62

puncture wounds

sharp point without sharp edges

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63

chopping wound

crushed edges caused by sharp and blunt forces

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64

contact range entrance wound

imprint of muzzle seen on skin

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65

intermediate range entrance

under 48 inches, stippling of gun powder seen on skin

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66

shored exit wound

caused if victim was wearing tight clothes or sitting againt a chain

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67

asphyxial injury types

suffocation, strangulation, chemical, drowing

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68

suffocation injury

oxygen failed to reach the blood

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69

strangulation injury

compression of vessels and air passageway

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70

chemical asphyxiants

block oxygen delivery

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71

drowing

alteration of oxygen delivery by breathing in fluid

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72

infectious injury

invasion and destruction caused by microorganism

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73

immunologic and inflammatory injuries caused by

phagocytic cells

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74

immune and inflammatory substances

histamines, antibodies, lymphokines, cytokines

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75

injurous genetic and epigenetic factors

alterations in nucleus, plasma membrane structure, shape, receptors and mechanisms

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76

injurious nutrition imbalances

deficient or excessive intake

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77

temperature extreme injury

hypothermia, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, burns

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78

treatment of heat cramps and heat exhaustion

treat with sodium and water

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79

heat stroke

rectal temperature over 106 life threatening peripheral vasodilation

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80

sudden infant death syndrome can be caused by

overheating

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81

tissue injury caused by compression waves followed by sudden decompression

blast injury

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82

carbon dioxide and nitrogen form gas emboli caused by water pressure being reduced too quickly

decompression sickness

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83

types of high altitude illness

High altitude pulmonary edema and cerebral edema

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84

any form of radiation capable of removing orbital electrons from ions can damage DNA in G2 phase

ionizing radiation

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85

when cells not directly in the radiated field are affected by radiation, also know as horizontal transmission

bystander effects

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86

generations of cells derived from an irradiated progenitor cell, lethal and nonlethal mutations appear

genomic instability

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87

fluorescent lighting or excessive light exposure causes headache, eyestrain, eye discomfort

illumination injury

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88

overexertion disorders of upper extremities and lower back, when mechanical forces exceed unknown thresholds

mechanical stresses

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89

acoustic trauma and hearing loss can be caused by

noise damage

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90

occurs when cell attempt to catabolize ‘stored’ substances that can cause metabolite accumulation

cellular accumulation disease

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91

water storage disorder

cellular swelling by hypoxic injury

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92

lipid and carbohydrate accumulation disease

abnormal accumulation in cells

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93

glycogen accumulation disorder

occur in genetic conditions or conditions that affect glucose and glycogen metabolism

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94

glycogen accumulation disorders can result in

excessive vacuolation and cell death

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95

the point of no return for cell injury

calcium influx

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96

2 ways accumulation of protein cause cell damage

metabolites produce toxic enzymes that damage organelles, amounts of proteins in cytoplasm push against organelles

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97

What type of pigments are amino acids, melanin, blood proteins, porphyrins, hemoglobin, hemosiderin/ferritin, lipid rich pigment lipofuscin

endogenous

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98

Examples of exogenous pigments

silica, iron, lead, silver, tattoo dyes,

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99

the most common endogenous pigments

melanin, hemoproteins, bilirubin

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100

hemoproteins are necessary for

iron storage

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