Studied by 0 people

0.0(0)

get a hint

hint

1

Orbitals

mathematical predictions of where electrons might be

New cards

2

What orbitals will first-row orbitals have? (H, He)

S orbitals only

New cards

3

What orbitals will second-row orbitals have? (B,C,N,O,F)

1s,2s,2p orbitals

New cards

4

What is the octet rule?

Max of 8 electrons

New cards

5

ionic bonding

electrostatic interaction of 2 ions (one positive and one negative)

New cards

6

Cation

positive ion

New cards

7

Anion

negative ion

New cards

8

The most common ionic bonding is between

metal and nonmetal

New cards

9

covalent bonding

Not all bonds are the same, and NOT all are equal

New cards

10

formal charge equation

valence electrons minus [# of lone pairs + (1/2 # of shared electron bonds)]

New cards

11

Molecular shape

angles will change with lone pairs and bondage

New cards

12

Bond length

average length between 2 bonded atoms

New cards

13

What does bond length do when atomic radius increases?

Bond length decreases with atomic radius

New cards

14

Atomic radius decreases as you move

left to right across periodic table

New cards

15

The atomic radius increases as you move

down the periodic table

New cards

16

Bond angle

# of groups (lone pairs or bonded atoms) will determine geometry

New cards

17

2 groups is what geometry

linear, 180

New cards

18

3 groups is what geometry

trigonal planar, 120

New cards

19

4 groups is what geometry

tetrahedral, 109.5

New cards

20

Heteroatom

any atom other then C or H

New cards

21

Hybridization

rearrangement of atomic orbitals into molecular orbitals

New cards

22

2 groups and 2 hybrid orbitals means a hybridization of

sp

New cards

23

3 groups and 3 hybrid orbitals means a hybridization of

sp^2

New cards

24

4 groups and 4 hybrid orbitals means a hybridization of

sp^3

New cards

25

TRUE or FALSE. Lone pairs count as a group when determining hybridzation.

True

New cards

26

As bond length increases, bond strength…

decreases

New cards

27

Shorter bond is a

stronger bond

New cards

28

TRUE or FALSE. Triple bonds are the strongest.

True

New cards

29

More s-character means a

stronger and shorter bond

New cards

30

TRUE or FALSE. sp is the shortest and strongest bond.

true

New cards

31

Polarity

unequal sharing of electron density

New cards

32

High electron density likely to have

electron between 2 atoms

New cards

33

An electronegative atom connected to an electropositive atom leads to

a polar molecule

New cards

34

Nonpolar molecule

does NOT contain electronegative atoms

New cards

35

Polar molecules have a net

dipole

New cards

36

Resonance structure

2 or more Lewis Structures with some placement of atoms, but different arrangement of electrons (bonds and lone pairs)

New cards

37

Curved arrow notation

move electrons in pairs in resonance structures

New cards

38

sigma bond

one bond

New cards

39

pi bond

double bond

New cards

40

one sigma bond and 2 pi bonds

triple bond

New cards

41

conjugation

occurs where p-orbitals (pi bonds) overlap on 3 or more adjacent carbons

New cards

42

Special resonance allows for

delocalization (spreading out) of electron density

New cards

43

aromaticity

special type of conjugation, whatever type of charge you start with is the charge you must end with

New cards

44

The better resonance form has

lower energy

New cards

45

Better resonance forms have more bonds and less charges which leads to more

stablity

New cards

46

Hydrocarbons

made up of only hydrogens and carbons

New cards

47

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

alkanes, sigma bond

alkenes, 1 sigma, and 1 pi bond

alkynes, 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds

New cards

48

R is a substituent that means

any hydrocarbon

New cards

49

1 degree

primary carbon, bound to 1 other carbon

New cards

50

2 degree

secondary carbon, bound to 2 carbons

New cards

51

3 degree

tertiary carbon, bound to 3 carbons

New cards

52

4 degree

quaternary carbon, bound to 4 carbons

New cards

53

Alkyl halides

R-X

X is F, Cl, Br, I

New cards

54

Alcohols (hydroxyl groups or -OH)

R-OH

Ex: methanol

New cards

55

Ethers (alkoxy groups)

R1-O-R2 (bent structure)

Ex: Dimethyl ether

H3C-O-CH3 (bent structure)

New cards

56

Amines (amino group) 1, 2, or 3 amines

Ex: methyl amine

H3C-NH2

New cards

57

Thiols (marcato groups)

R-SH

Ex: H3C-SH

New cards

58

Sulfide (alkylthio group)

R1-S-R2

Ex: Dimethyl sulfide

H3C-S-CH3

New cards

59

Aldehyde (end in “al”)

Ex: ethanal

Must have hydrogen

New cards

60

Ketone (carbonyl groups)

Ex: acetone

New cards

61

Ketone structure

can also be R1 and R2

New cards

62

carboxylic acid (carboxy groups)

Ex: acetic acid

New cards

63

carboxylic acid structure

New cards

64

Esters

Ex: ethyl acetate

New cards

65

Ester structure

New cards

66

amide

Ex: methyl amide

New cards

67

amide structure

The R2 and R3 can also be H’s

New cards

68

acid chloride

Ex: acetyl chloride

New cards

69

acid chloride structure

New cards

70

resonance structures are better when they have

fewer charges and more bonds

full octets

negative charges on electronegative atoms

New cards

71

Bronsted Lowry acid

donates H+ (proton) or H3O+

New cards

72

Bronsted Lowry base

accepts H+ (lone pair electron or pi bond)

New cards

73

Example of Bronsted Lowry acid

H-Cl

H-Br

H2SO4

H3O+

H2O

Acetic Acid

New cards

74

Example of Bronsted Lowry Bases

H2O (4 lone pairs on Oxygen)

H3N (2 lone pairs on Nitrogen)

Hydroxide, negative charge

Methoxide, negative charge

Acetone

New cards

75

Reaction of Bronsted Lowry acids and bases

H-A + B ⇆ A^- + H-B^+

acid base C.B C.A

New cards

76

Another example of Bronsted Lowry acids and bases

H-Br + Methanol ⇆ Br^- + (Methanol + extra H)

Acid Base C.B C.A

New cards

77

Lewis acid

accepts an electron pair (lone pair or pi bond)

New cards

78

Lewis base

donates an electron pair

New cards

79

TRUE or FALSE. Transition metals can accept a lone pair of electrons.

true. B, Al, Ga, etc.

New cards

80

Lewis acid and base reaction example

H-A + water ⇆ A +H3O

Acid Base C.B C.A

New cards

81

What is the K equilibrium formula

products divided by starting material

New cards

82

Example of K equilibrium formula

[H30+][A-] divided by [H-A][H2O], water is liquid therefore not included so equation is

[H3O+][A-] divided by [HA]

New cards

83

Ka is the

acidity constant

New cards

84

A bigger Ka means

equilibrium lies towards the right (product-favored)

New cards

85

A higher Ka means

a stronger HA (acid)

New cards

86

pKa =

-log(Ka)

New cards

87

smaller pKa means a

stronger acid

New cards

88

Larger pKa means a

weaker acid

New cards

89

Strong acid wants to

donate a proton

New cards

90

A strong acid makes a

weak conjugate base

New cards

91

A strong base wants to

accept a H+ (Become B-H)

New cards

92

A strong base makes a

weak conjugate acid

New cards

93

TRUE or FALSE. Equilibrium favors the side with the weaker acids/bases because they don’t react well.

true

New cards

94

Equilibrium favors the

higher pKa value (weaker acid)

New cards

95

Acidity increases from

left to right across periodic table

New cards

96

The strongest conjugate base is the least

stable anion

New cards

97

A larger ionic radius allows us to better distribute the

negative charge over the surface area

distribute charge = more stable anion

increase acidity

New cards

98

The most negative pKa value has the

biggest ionic radius

H-F < H-Cl < H-Br < H-I

New cards

99

Inductive effect

presence of a more electronegative atom has an electron-withdrawing effect

electron density being towards pulled the more electronegative atom

New cards

100

How do you determine acid strength?

element effects

inductive effects

resonance effects

hybridization effects

New cards