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32-bit versus 64-bit

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344 Terms

1

32-bit versus 64-bit

Processing modes referring to the size of each instruction processed by the CPU. 32-bit CPUs replaced earlier 16-bit CPUs and were used through the 1990s to the present day, though most PC and laptop CPUs now work in 64-bit mode. The main 64- bit platform is called AMD64 or EM64T (by Intel). Software can be compiled as 32-bit or 64-bit. 64-bit CPUs can run most 32-bit software, but a 32-bit CPU cannot execute 64-bit software.

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3-D Printer

Hardware device capable of small-scale manufacturing. Most 3-D printers use either a variety of filament (typically plastic) or resin media with different properties.

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3

802.11 standards

Specifications developed by IEEE for wireless networking over microwave radio transmission in the 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 6 GHz frequency bands. The Wi-Fi standards brand has six main iterations: a, b, g, Wi-Fi 4 (n), Wi-Fi 5 (ac), and Wi-Fi 6 (ax). These specify different modulation techniques, supported distances, and data rates, plus special features, such as channel bonding, MIMO, and MU-MIMO.

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802.3 Ethernet

Standards developed as the IEEE 802.3 series describing media types, access methods, data rates, and distance limitations at OSI layers 1 and 2 using xBASE-y designations.

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5

access point (AP)

Device that provides a connection between wireless devices and can connect to wired networks, implementing an infrastructure mode WLAN.

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adapter cable

Peripheral cable converting between connector form factors or between signaling types, such as DisplayPort to HDMI.

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7

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)

CPU manufacturer providing healthy competition for Intel. AMD chips such as the K6 or Athlon 64 and latterly the Ryzen have been very popular with computer manufacturers and have often out-performed their Intel equivalents.

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8

Advanced RISC Machines (ARM)

Designer of CPU and chipset architectures widely used in mobile devices. RISC stands for reduced instruction set computing. RISC microarchitectures use a small number of simple instructions that can be performed as a single operation. This contrasts with complex (CISC) microarchitectures, which use a large set of more powerful instructions that can take more than one operation to complete.

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advanced technology extended (ATX)

Standard PC case, motherboard, and power supply specification. Mini-, Micro-, and Flex-ATX specify smaller board designs.

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10

airplane mode

A toggle found on mobile devices enabling the user to disable and enable wireless functionality quickly.

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11

app store

Feature of mobile computing that provides a managed interface for installing third-party software apps.

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12

application programming interface (API)

Library of programming utilities used, for example, to enable software developers to access functions of the TCP/IP network stack under a particular operating system.

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13

application virtualization

Software delivery model where the code runs on a server and is streamed to a client.

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14

authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)

Security concept where a centralized platform verifies subject identification, ensures the subject is assigned relevant permissions, and then logs these actions to create an audit trail.

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15

automatic document feeder (ADF)

Device that feeds media automatically into a scanner or printer.

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16

automatic private IP addressing (APIPA)

Mechanism for Windows hosts configured to obtain an address automatically that cannot contact a DHCP server to revert to using an address from the range 169.254.x.y. This is also called a link-local address.

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backlight

LED or fluorescent lamp that illuminates the image on a flat-panel (TFT) screen. If the backlight component fails, only a dim image will be shown.

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basic input/output system (BIOS)

Legacy 32-bit firmware type that initializes hardware and provides a system setup interface for configuring boot devices and other hardware settings.

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basic service set ID (BSSID)

MAC address of an access point supporting a basic service area.

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20

battery

Power source for a portable computer, typically a rechargeable Lithium-ion (Li-ion) type. A small coin cell battery is also used in a computer to power CMOS RAM.

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21

beep codes

During POST, errors in hardware or the system firmware data can be brought to the attention of the user by beep noises. Each beep code is able to draw attention to a particular fault with the hardware. It was once customary for a computer to beep once to indicate that POST has been successful, though most modern computers boot silently.

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binary

Notational system with two values per digit (zero and one). Computers process code in binary because the transistors in its CPU and memory components also have two states (off and on).

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biometric authentication

Authentication mechanism that allows a user to perform a biometric scan to operate an entry or access system. Physical characteristics stored as a digital data template can be used to authenticate a user. Typical features used include facial pattern, iris, retina, fingerprint pattern, and signature recognition.

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blue screen of death (BSOD)

Microsoft status screen that indicates an error from which the system cannot recover (also called a stop error). Blue screens are usually caused by bad driver software or hardware faults (memory or disk). Other operating systems use similar crash indicators, such as Apple's pinwheel and Linux's kernel panic message.

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Bluetooth

Short-range, wireless radio network-transmission medium normally used to connect two personal devices, such as a mobile phone and a wireless headset.

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Blu-ray Disc

Latest generation of optical drive technology, with disc capacity of 25 GB per layer. Transfer rates are measured in multiples of 36 MB/s.

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boot option

Disk or network adapter device from which an operating system can be loaded.

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boot password

Feature of system setup that prevents the computer from booting until the correct user password is supplied. A supervisor password restricts access to the system setup program.

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bus

Connections between components on the motherboard and peripheral devices providing data pathways, memory addressing, power supply, timing, and connector/port form factor.

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cable modem

Cable-Internet-access digital modem that uses a coaxial connection to the service provider's fiber-optic core network.

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cable stripper

Tool for stripping cable jacket or wire insulation.

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cable tester

Two-part tool used to test successful termination of copper cable by attaching to each end of a cable and energizing each wire conductor in turn with an LED to indicate an end-to-end connection.

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capture card

Adapter card designed to record video from a source such as a TV tuner or games console.

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34

carriage belt

Inkjet print device component that moves the print head over the paper.

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35

cellular radio

Standards for implementing data access over cellular networks are implemented as successive generations. For 2G (up to about 48 Kb/s) and 3G (up to about 42 Mb/s), there are competing GSM and CDMA provider networks. Standards for 4G (up to about 90 Mb/s) and 5G (up to about 300 Mb/s) are developed under converged LTE standards.

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central processing unit (CPU)

Principal microprocessor in a PC or mobile device responsible for running firmware, operating system, and applications software.

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certificate

Issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) as a guarantee that a public key it has issued to an organization to encrypt messages sent to it genuinely belongs to that organization.

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certificate authority (CA)

Server that guarantees subject identities by issuing signed digital certificate wrappers for their public keys.

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39

channel

Subdivision of frequency bands used by Wi-Fi products into smaller channels to allow multiple networks to operate at the same location without interfering with one another.

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channel bonding

Capability to aggregate one or more adjacent wireless channels to increase bandwidth.

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41

chipset

Processors embedded on a motherboard to support the operation of the CPU and implementing various controllers (for memory, graphics, I/O, and so on).

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clock

System clock signal that synchronizes the operation of all of the components within a PC. It also provides the basic timing signal for the processor, bus, and memory. The CPU typically runs at many multiples of the basic clock speed.

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43

cloud computing

Computing architecture where on-demand resources provisioned with the attributes of high availability, scalability, and elasticity are billed to customers based on metered utilization.

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cloud service model

Classifying the provision of cloud services and the limit of the cloud service provider's responsibility as software, platform, infrastructure, and so on.

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cloud service provider (CSP)

Organization providing infrastructure, application, and/or storage services via an "as a service" subscription-based, cloud-centric offering.

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coaxial cable

Media type using two separate conductors that share a common axis categorized using the Radio Grade (RG) specifications.

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47

code division multiple access (CDMA)

Method of multiplexing a communications channel using a code to key the modulation of a particular signal. CDMA is associated with Sprint and Verizon cellular phone networks.

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48

collision domain

Network segment where nodes are attached to the same shared access media, such as a bus network or Ethernet hub.

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community cloud

Cloud that is deployed for shared use by cooperating tenants.

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Compact Disc (CD)

Optical storage technology supporting up to 700 MB per disc with recordable and re-writable media also available.

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51

containerization

Type of virtualization applied by a host operating system to provision an isolated execution environment for an application.

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52

crimper

Tool to join a Registered Jack (RJ) form factor connector to the ends of twisted-pair patch cable.

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53

cyan, magenta, yellow, black (CMYK)

Subtractive color model used by print devices. CMYK printing involves use of halftone screens. Four screens (or layers) of dots printed in each of the colors are overlaid. The size and density of the dots on each layer produce different shades of color and is viewed as a continuous tone image.

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54

data cap

Feature of mobile computing that allows use of a network connection to be limited to avoid incurring additional carrier charges.

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55

data loss (leak) prevention (DLP)

Software solution that detects and prevents sensitive information from being stored on unauthorized systems or transmitted over unauthorized networks.

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datacenter

Facility dedicated to the provisioning of reliable power, environmental controls, and network fabric to server computers.

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57

DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM)

Series of high-bandwidth system-memory standards (DDR3/DDR4/DDR5) where data is transferred twice per clock cycle.

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58

decibel (dB)

Unit for representing the power of network signaling.

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59

decibels per isotropic (dBi)

Unit for representing the increase in power gained by the directional design of a wireless antenna.

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default gateway

IP configuration parameter that identifies the address of a router on the local subnet that the host can use to contact other networks.

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61

desktop as a service (DaaS)

Cloud service model that provisions desktop OS and applications software.

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62

digital camera

Version of a 35 mm film camera where the film is replaced by light-sensitive diodes and electronic storage media (typically a flash memory card). The sensitivity of the array determines the maximum resolution of the image, measured in megapixels. Most mobile devices are fitted with embedded cameras that can function as both still and video cameras.

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63

digital subscriber line (DSL)

Carrier technology to implement broadband Internet access for subscribers by transferring data over voice-grade telephone lines. There are various "flavors" of DSL, notably Symmetric-SDSL, Asymmetric-ADSL, and Very High Bit Rate-VDSL/VHDSL.

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64

Digital Video Interface (DVI)

Legacy video interface that supports digital only or digital and analog signaling.

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65

Digital Video/Versatile Disk (DVD)

Optical storage technology supporting up to 4.7 GB per layer per disc with recordable and re-writable media also available.

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digitizer

As part of a touch screen assembly, this is a touch sensitive layer placed on top of the display panel. It converts analog touch and gesture events to digital signals that can be interpreted as different types of input.

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direct burial

A type of outside plant (OSP) installation where cable is laid directly into the ground with no protective conduit.

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DisplayPort

Digital audio/video interface developed by VESA. Supports some cross compatibility with DVI and HDMI devices with an adapter.

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docking station

Advanced type of port replicator designed to provide additional ports (such as network or USB) and functionality (such as expansion slots and drives) to a portable computer when used at a desk.

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domain name system (DNS)

Service that maps fully qualified domain name labels to IP addresses on most TCP/IP networks, including the Internet.

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Domain-Based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC)

Framework for ensuring proper application of SPF and DKIM utilizing a policy published as a DNS record.

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DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM)

Cryptographic authentication mechanism for mail utilizing a public key published as a DNS record.

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73

D-subminiature shell connector (DB-9)

Legacy connector form factor used for serial (9-pin) interfaces. Sometimes referred to as a COM Port.

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74

dual inline memory module (DIMM)

Standard form factor for system memory. There are different pin configurations for different DDR-SDRAM RAM types.

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dual-channel

System-memory controller configuration that provides two data pathways between the memory modules and a compatible CPU.

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76

duplex unit

Installable option that enables a print device or scanner to use both sides of a page automatically.

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77

dynamic frequency selection (DFS)

Regulatory feature of wireless access points that prevents use of certain 5 GHz channels when in range of a facility that uses radar.

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dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP)

Protocol used to automatically assign IP addressing information to hosts that have not been configured manually.

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effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP)

Signal strength from a transmitter, measured as the sum of transmit power, antenna cable/ connector loss, and antenna gain.

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elasticity

Property by which a computing environment can add or remove resources in response to increasing and decreasing demands in workload.

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81

electrostatic discharge (ESD)

Metal and plastic surfaces can allow a charge to build up. This can discharge if a potential difference is formed between the charged object and an oppositely charged conductive object. This electrical discharge can damage silicon chips and computer components if they are exposed to it.

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82

email

Electronic store and forward messaging system. Email supports text messages and binary file attachments. For Internet email, an SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server is used to forward mail to a host. A mail client then uses either POP3 (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) to access the mailbox on the server and download messages.

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embedded system

Electronic system that is designed to perform a specific, dedicated function, such as a microcontroller in a medical drip or components in a control system managing a water treatment plant.

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enclosure

Chassis for connecting an internal disk unit as an external peripheral device.

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end of life (EOL)

Product life cycle phase where mainstream vendor support is no longer available.

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86

error correction code (ECC)

System memory (RAM) with built-in error correction security. It is more expensive than normal memory and requires motherboard support. It is typically only used in servers.

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escalation

In the context of support procedures, incident response, and breach-reporting, escalation is the process of involving expert and senior staff to assist in problem management.

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external serial advanced technology attachment (eSATA)

Variant of SATA cabling designed for external connectivity.

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89

fan

Cooling device fitted to PC cases and components to improve air flow.

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90

fiber optic cable

Network cable type that uses light signals as the basis for data transmission. Infrared light pulses are transmitted down the glass core of the fiber. The cladding that surrounds this core reflects light back to ensure transmission efficiency. Two main categories of fiber are available; multimode, which uses cheaper, shorter wavelength LEDs or VCSEL diodes, or single-mode, which uses more expensive, longer wavelength laser diodes. At the receiving end of the cable, light-sensitive diodes re-convert the light pulse into an electrical signal. Fiber optic cable is immune to eavesdropping and EMI, has low attenuation, supports rates of 10 Gb/s+, and is light and compact.

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91

fiber to premise (FTTP)

Internet connection type that uses a fiber link between the subscriber premises and ISP network. Fiber to the premises (FTTP) uses a full fiber link, while fiber to the curb (FTTC) retains a short segment of copper wire between the subscriber premises and a street cabinet.

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filament

3-D print device media type (material).

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file server

In file server-based networks, a central machine provides dedicated file and print services to workstations. Benefits of server-based networks include ease of administration through centralization.

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file transfer protocol (FTP)

Application protocol used to transfer files between network hosts. Variants include SFTP with SSH, FTP with SSL (FTPS and FTPES) and TFTP. FTP utilizes TCP ports 20 and 21.

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finisher unit

Print device component used to automate document production, such as hole punching or stapling print jobs.

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firewall

Software or hardware device that protects a network segment or individual host by filtering packets to an access control list.

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firmware

Software instructions embedded on a hardware device such as a computer motherboard. Modern types are stored in flash memory and can be updated more easily than legacy programmable read-only memory (ROM) types.

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flash drive

Solid state flash memory provisioned as a peripheral device with a USB interface.

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flatbed scanner

Type of scanner where the object is placed on a glass faceplate and the scan head moves underneath it.

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form factor

Size and shape of a component, determining its compatibility. It is most closely associated with PC motherboard, case, and power supply designs.

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