Chapter 13 - Spinal Cord Practice Questions

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_______ are examples of effectors of the nervous system.

Receptors.

Stimuli.

Reflexes.

Glands.

Sense organs.

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154 Terms

1

_______ are examples of effectors of the nervous system.

Receptors.

Stimuli.

Reflexes.

Glands.

Sense organs.

Glands

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2

Which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia?:

Smell.

Hearing.

Touch.

Taste.

Vision.

Touch

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3

The spinal cord is divided into all of the following regions except

Cervical.

Thoracic.

Lumbar.

Pelvic.

Sacral.

The spinal cord is not divided into Pelvic region.

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4

The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except

The thoracic region.

The brachial region.

The cervical region.

The lumbar region.

The sacral region.

except the thoracic region.

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5

The following are all functions associated with the spinal cord except:

To protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tracts.

To mediate a reflex such as the withdrawal of a hand from pain.

To conduct sensory information up to the brain.

To conduct motor information down the cord.

To coordinate the alternating contraction of several muscle groups associated with locomotion.

to coordinate the alternating contraction of several muscle groups associated with locomotion.

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6

Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury?:

A fracture of vertebra C2.

A fracture of vertebra C6.

A fracture of vertebra T5.

A fracture of vertebra T12.

A fracture of vertebra L4.

A fracture of vertebra L4

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7

Epidural anesthesia is introduced in the epidural space between the ___ to block pain signals during pregnancy:

Dural sheath and dura mater.

Dural sheath and vertebral bones.

Dura mater and arachnoid mater.

Arachnoid mater and pia mater.

Dura mater and pia mater.

dural sheath and vertebral bones (to block pain signals during pregnancy)

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8

Cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between the:

Dural sheath and dura mater.

Dural sheath and vertebral bones.

Dura mater and arachnoid mater.

Arachnoid mater and pia mater.

Dura mater and pia mater.

arachnoid mater and pia mater.

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9

Which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content?:

Gray matter.

White matter.

arachnoid mater

Dura mater.

Pia mater.

White matter

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10

Gray matter contains:

Glial cells, axons of motor neurons, and Schwann cells.

Glial cells and myelinated fibers.

Neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons.

The distal part of axons of lower order motor neurons.

Glial cells only.

Neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons

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11

______ carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord:

Both anterior and posterior roots.

Ascending tracts.

Spinal nerves.

Cranial nerves.

Descending tracts.

Descending tracts

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12

___ keep(s) nerve fibers insulated from one another:

Perineurium.

Endoneurium.

Fascicles.

Epineurium.

Blood vessels.

Endoneurium

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13

A ganglion is a:

Bundle of axons in the CNS.

Cluster of dendrites in either the CNS or the PNS.

Cluster of neurosomas in the PNS.

Bundle of axons in the PNS.

Cluster of neurosomas in the CNS.

cluster of neurosomas in the PNS.

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14

There are _______ pairs of spinal nerves:

12.

24.

31.

35.

62.

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

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15

Which of the following nerves originates in the cervical plexus?:

Tibial.

Sciatic.

Musculocutaneous.

Radial.

Phrenic.

Phrenic nerve

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16

Which of the following nerves originates in the lumbosacral plexus?:

Axillary.

Sciatic.

Phrenic.

Ilioinguinal.

Obturator.

Sciatic nerve.

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17

A mixed nerve consists of both:

Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.

Glial cells and nerve cells.

Afferent and efferent fibers.

Association and integration neurons.

Spinal and cranial fibers.

myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.

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18

Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons?:

Posterior (dorsal) root.

Anterior (ventral) root.

Posterior ramus.

Anterior ramus.

Meningeal branch.

posterior (dorsal) root

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19

The bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the:

Medullary cone.

Cauda equina.

Lumbar enlargement.

Cervical enlargement.

Spinal cord.

Cauda equina.

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20

Somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from:

Bones and muscles.

Joints.

Proprioceptors.

The viscera.

The skin.

the viscera

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21

Neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the ______, whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the ________:

Posterior root ganglion; gray matter.

Posterior root ganglion; white matter.

Gray matter; white matter.

Posterior root; anterior root.

White matter; gray matter.

posterior root ganglion, gray matter.

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22

A ___ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous ___:

Nerve fiber; nerves.

Nerve fiber; axons.

Nerve; axons.

Nerve fiber; neurosomas.

Nerve; neurosomas.

Nerve fiber; axons.

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23

Which one of the following best describes the order of a somatic reflex?:

Somatic receptor, interneuron, afferent nerve fiber, efferent nerve fiber, skeletal muscle.

Somatic receptor, efferent nerve fiber, interneuron, afferent nerve fiber, skeletal muscle.

Somatic receptor, afferent nerve fiber, interneuron, efferent nerve fiber, skeletal muscle.

Somatic receptor, efferent nerve fiber, afferent nerve fiber, interneuron, skeletal muscle.

Somatic receptor, afferent nerve fiber, interneuron, efferent nerve fiber, smooth muscle.

Somatic receptor, afferent nerve fiber, interneuron, efferent nerve fiber, skeletal muscle.

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24

Which of the following groups of muscles have the most muscle spindles?

Muscles of the hand.

Muscles of the back.

Muscles of the thigh.

Muscles of the middle ear.

Muscles of the torso.

Muscles of the hand

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25

These are all properties of reflexes except:

Reflex responses are very predictable.

Reflexes are responses to sensory inputs.

Reflexes are quick responses of the nervous system.

Reflexes are not voluntary.

Reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system.

Reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system.

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26

A muscle spindle contains mostly:

Glial cells.

Muscle fibers.

Fascicles.

Nerves.

Nerve cells.

muscle fibers.

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27

A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. This is called the:

Painful reflex.

Stretch (myotatic) reflex.

Flexor (withdrawal) reflex.

Tendon reflex.

Crossed extension reflex.

Flexor (withdrawal) reflex.

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28

The quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming __ reflex arcs:

Ipsilateral.

Contralateral.

Polysynaptic.

Monosynaptic.

Autonomic.

Monosynaptic.

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29

f a bee sting on the right thigh causes a quick involuntary reaction of the body and arms, this would be an example of: An ipsilateral reflex.

An intersegmental reflex.

A withdrawal reflex.

A crossed extensor reflex.

A contralateral reflex.

A withdrawal reflex.

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30

The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by:

A stretch reflex.

Alpha motor neurons.

Gamma motor neurons.

Anulospiral endings.

Secondary afferent (group II) fibers.

gamma motor neurons.

(Gamma motor neurons form neuromuscular junctions on either end of the fiber of muscle spindle)

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31

The fibers that carry action potentials to cause skeletal muscle to contract are:

Gamma motor neurons.

Anulospiral endings.

Intrafusal fibers.

Extrafusal fibers.

Alpha motor neurons.

alpha motor neurons.

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32

You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts. Your head starts to lower a little but this reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the:

Tendon reflex.

Crossed extension reflex.

Withdrawal reflex.

Stretch (myotatic) reflex.

Flexor (withdrawal) reflex.

Stretch (myotatic) reflex.

(Stretch reflex provide automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length.)

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33

In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to:

Contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax.

Contract and the hamstrings also to contract.

Relax and the hamstrings to contract.

Relax and the hamstrings also to relax.

Relax without any effect on the hamstrings.

contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax.

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34

A reflex where the sensory input and motor output are on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a (n) _____ reflex arc:

Intersegmental.

Contralateral.

Ipsilateral.

Polysynaptic.

Monosynaptic.

contralateral reflex arc.

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35

The tendon reflex:

Causes a muscle that is being stretched to contract.

Makes the contralateral motor neurons contract.

Makes the ipsilateral motor neurons relax.

Prevents over contraction of a muscle.

Causes a tendon to contract.

prevents over contraction of a muscle

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36

This reflex shows the least synaptic delay:

Polysynaptic reflex.

Cross extension reflex.

Withdrawal reflex.

Flexor reflex.

Patellar tendon reflex.

Patellar tendon reflex

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37

Tendon organs are ________:

Chemoreceptors.

Visceral receptors.

Proprioceptors.

Pain receptors.

Nociceptors.

proprioceptors.

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38

In the spinal cord, white matter is organized into ascending and descending tracts grouping into:

Ganglia.

Nuclei.

Columns.

Nerves.

Horns.

columns.

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39

Enlargements of the spinal cord occur:

a) Adjacent to the anterior median fissure.

b) Near the posterior median sulcus.

c) In the filum terminale.

d) In the thoracic region of the spinal cord.

e) In segments of the spinal cord that control the limbs.

in segments of the spinal cord that control the limbs.

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40

The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament:

Conus medullaris.

Cauda equina.

Filum terminale.

Ventral root.

Dorsal root.

Filum terminale.

(Fibrous strand extends from inferior tip of conus medullaris to coccygeal ligament.  Provides longitudinal support to spinal cord)

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41

The entire spinal cord is divided into ________ segments:

a) 5.

b) 12.

c) 25.

d) 31.

e) 35.

31

(Divided into 31 segments, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal. Each segment is identified by a letter and a number e.g., C7, L3...etc)

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42

The specialized membranes that protect the spinal cord are termed:

Spinal meninges.

Spinal mater.

Epidural membranes.

Cranial meninges.

Cranial mater.

spinal meninges.

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43

Blood vessels directly supplying the spinal cord are found in the

Arachnoid mater.

Pia mater.

Epidural space.

Subdural space.

Dura mater.

Blood vessels directly supplying the spinal cord are found in the pia mater.

(Blood vessels run along the surface of Pia mater in subarachnoid space.)

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44

The projections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the spinal cord are called:

Horns.

Wings.

Pyramids.

Fibers.

Tracts.

Horns.

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45

Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the:

White commissures.

Lateral gray horns.

Posterior gray horns.

Gray commissures.

Anterior gray horns.

gray commissures.

(Contains unmyelinated axons connecting gray matter on either side. Encloses central canal)

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46

The white matter of the spinal cord contains:

Interneurons.

Bundles of axons that share common origins, destinations, and functions.

Both axons and dendrites.

Sensory and motor nuclei.

Bundles of dendrites that share common origins, destinations, and functions.

bundles of axons that share common origins, destinations, and functions.

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47

The spinal cord continues to elongate and enlarge until about age:

20 years.

6 months.

10 years.

2 months.

4 years.

4 years.

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48

The outermost connective tissue covering of spinal nerves is the:

Perineurium.

Endomysium.

Endoneurium.

Epimysium.

Epineurium.

Epineurium.

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49

The dorsal root ganglia contain:

Cell bodies of sensory neurons.

Axons of motor neurons.

Axons of sensory neurons.

Cell bodies of motor neurons.

Interneurons.

Cell bodies of sensory neurons.

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50

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains:

Cell bodies of sensory neurons.

Axons of sensory neurons.

Axons of motor neurons.

Cell bodies of motor neurons.

Interneurons.

axons of sensory neurons.

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51

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains:

Interneurons.

Axons of motor neurons.

Cell bodies of sensory neurons.

Axons of sensory neurons.

Cell bodies of motor neurons.

cell bodies of motor neurons.

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52

Spinal nerves are ________ nerves:

Involuntary.

Purely sensory.

Mixed.

Purely motor.

Interneuronal.

Spinal nerves are mixed nerves.

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53

The dorsal and ventral roots of each spinal segment unite to form a:

Spinal nerve.

Cervical enlargement.

Spinal meninx.

Spinal ganglion.

Lumbar enlargement.

Spinal nerve.

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54

Which of the following pairs is not properly matched?:

Thoracic spinal nerves: 12.

coccygeal spinal nerves: 1.

lumbar spinal nerves: 4.

sacral spinal nerves: 5.

cervical spinal nerves: 8.

lumbar spinal nerves: 4.

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55

The ________ of each spinal nerve provides sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back:

White ramus communicantes.

Gray ramus communicantes.

Dermatomes.

Dorsal ramus.

Ventral ramus.

dorsal ramus

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56

Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region:

Lumbar.

Cervical.

Coccygeal.

Sacral.

Thoracic.

cervical region.

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57

Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles:

Shoulder.

Facial.

Abdominal.

Leg.

Intercostal.

leg muscles.

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58

Sensory and motor innervations of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the:

White ramus communicantes.

Dermatomes.

Gray ramus communicantes.

Dorsal ramus.

Ventral ramus.

dermatomes.

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59

The joining of the ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves is termed a(n):

Lateral nerve.

Plexus.

Tract.

Autonomic nerve.

Dermatome.

plexus.

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60

Each of the following nerves is found in the lumbar plexus, except the ________ nerve:

Obturator.

Sciatic.

Saphenous.

Genitofemoral.

Femoral.

Sciatic nerve.

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61

A nerve of the cervical plexus that innervates the diaphragm is the ________ nerve:

lesser occipital

phrenic

radial

ansa cervicalis

sciatic

phrenic nerve.

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62

The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 form the ________ plexus:

Lumbar.

Sacral.

Brachial.

Thoracic.

Cervical.

Brachial.

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63

The ulnar nerve is found in which plexus?:

Lumbar.

Cranial.

Brachial.

Sacral.

Cervical.

brachial plexus.

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64

All of the following are true of neural reflexes, except that they:

Show wide variability in response.

Help preserve homeostasis.

Is the simplest type of nervous response?

Are automatic motor responses.

Both B and D.

Show wide variability in response.

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65

Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following, except:

The site where information processing occurs.

The complexity of the neural circuit involved.

The nature of the resulting motor response.

Their development.

Whether they are sensory or motor.

except the site where information processing occurs.

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66

Reflexes that result from the connections that form between neurons during embryonic development are ________ reflexes:

Innate.

Visceral.

Somatic.

Autonomic.

Acquired.

innate reflexes.

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67

The stretch reflex:

Is an example of a polysynaptic reflex.

Is important in regulating posture.

Is activated when a skeletal muscle shortens.

Involves a receptor called the Golgi tendon organ.

Both C and D.

is important in regulating posture

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68

All of the following are true of muscle spindles, except that they:

Help prevent muscle damage that would result from overstretching.

Consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.

Are regulated by gamma motor neurons.

Are found in skeletal muscle.

Are found in skeletal muscles and their tendons.

except that they are not found in skeletal muscles and their tendons.

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69

The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex:

Tendon.

Reciprocal.

Flexor.

Crossed extensor.

Stretch

Tendon reflex.

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70

The flexor reflex:

Prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.

Moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.

Prevents a muscle from overstretching.

Is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.

Makes adjustments in other parts of the body in response to a particular stimulus.

Moves a limb away from a painful stimulus

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71

The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex by making compensatory adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the ________ reflex.

  1. Tendon.

  2. Reciprocal.

  3. Flexor.

  4. Stretch.

  5. Crossed extensor.

Crossed extensor

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72

Interneurons in the spinal cord prevent muscle antagonists from interfering with an intended movement by

  1. A crossed extensor reflex.

  2. A stretch reflex.

  3. Reverberating circuits.

  4. Reciprocal inhibition.

  5. A tendon reflex.

Reciprocal inhibition

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73

All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, except that they:

Involve reciprocal innervation.

Have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflexive motor response.

Are intersegmental in distribution.

Involve pools of interneurons.

Are arranged according to dermatomes.

are arranged according to dermatomes.

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74

The tough, fibrous outermost covering of the spinal cord is the:

Pia mater.

Arachnoid.

Dura mater.

Periosteum.

Epidural block.

dura mater.

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75

The white matter of the spinal cord is dominated by:

Cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons.

Unmyelinated axons.

Schwann cells and satellite cells.

Nodes of Ranvier.

Myelinated axons.

myelinated axons.

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76

The spinal cord itself is ________ in relation to the vertebral column:

Shorter.

The same size.

Longer.

None of the above.

Both A and C.

shorter

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77

________ is an inflammation of the meningeal membranes:

Membranitis.

Meningitis.

Meningealitis.

Hepatitis.

None of the above.

Meningitis.

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78

Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?:

It provides mainly sensory anesthesia.

It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.

It can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region.

It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.

All of the above.

It provides mainly sensory anesthesia.

It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.

It can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region.

It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.

All of the above.

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79

Somatic motor nuclei are located on each side of the spinal cord and control all of the following, except muscles that:

Move the forearm and hand.

Move the hand and fingers.

Move the head and neck.

Move the arm.

Position the pectoral girdle.

position the pectoral girdle.

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80

The middle layer of the spinal nerve is termed the:

Perineurium.

Epineurium.

Posterneurium.

Ectoneurium.

Endoneurium.

Perineurium.

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81

In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerve:

Hodgkin's disease.

Shingles.

Chickenpox.

Neuronal damage.

Myasthenia gravis.

Shingles.

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82

Each peripheral nerve provides ________ innervation to specific structures:

Motor.

Sensory.

Tactile.

A and/or B.

B and/or C.

Motor and Sensory (answer D)

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83

If a person has an injury at C4, you would expect that he/she:

Would be in a coma.

Could walk without difficulty.

Would be unable to breathe on his/her own.

Would exhibit none of the above.

would be unable to breathe on his/her own.

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84

As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve:

Brachial.

Femoral.

Sciatic.

Pudendal.

Perineal.

Sciatic.

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85

The obturator nerve is distributed to the:

Biceps.

Skin over the perineum.

Posterior surface of the thigh.

Adductors of the hip.

Extensors of the hip.

adductors of the hip.

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86

The epidural space contains:

Denticulate ligaments.

Air.

Lymph.

Cerebrospinal fluid.

Connective tissue and blood vessels.

connective tissue and blood vessels

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87

The Subdural space:

Separates the arachnoid mater from the pia mater.

Is between the vertebrae and the dura mater.

Separates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater.

Contains cerebrospinal fluid.

Separates the pia mater from the dura mater.

separates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater.

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88

The layer of the meninges that is tightly bound to the surface of the neural tissue is the:

Filum terminale.

Denticulate ligament.

Dura mater.

Arachnoid mater.

Pia mater.

Pia mater.

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89

The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain:

Nerve tracts.

Sympathetic nuclei.

Somatic motor nuclei.

Autonomic motor nuclei.

Sensory nuclei.

sensory nuclei.

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90

The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain:

Sympathetic nuclei.

Somatic motor nuclei.

Nerve tracts.

Autonomic motor nuclei.

Sensory nuclei.

somatic motor nuclei

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91

Nerve tracts, or fasciculi, would be found in the:

Posterior gray horns.

Central canal.

Anterior white columns.

Gray commissures.

Both B and C.

Anterior white columns

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92

If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed:

Incoming sensory information would be disrupted.

Motor control of skeletal muscles would be impaired.

Motor control of visceral organs would be impaired.

The spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level.

The brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.

incoming sensory information would be disrupted.

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93

In diagnosing bacterial and viral infections of the nervous system, samples of cerebrospinal fluid are extracted for analysis. This procedure would logically withdraw fluid for analysis from the:

Arachnoid mater.

Epidural space.

Dura mater.

Cerebral ventricles.

Subarachnoid space.

subarachnoid space.

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94

In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?:

A polysynaptic reflex.

A monosynaptic reflex.

a polysynaptic reflex

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95

Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys some of the cells in the anterior gray horns in the lumbar region of his spinal cord. As a result of the disease which of the following would you expect?:

Inability to breathe.

Lack of feeling in his hands.

Lack of sensation from his right leg.

An inability to move his arm.

Problems with walking.

Problems with walking.

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96

Bundles of axons in the spinal cord are called:

Centers.

Ganglia.

Tracts

Nuclei.

Nerves.

tracts.

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97

Mary is in an automobile accident and injures her spinal cord. She has lost feeling in her right hand and her doctor tells her that it is the result of swelling compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?:

The anterior white commissure.

The gray commissure.

The anterior gray horns.

An ascending tract.

A descending tract.

a descending tract

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98

Injuries that cause edema (accumulation of fluid in the tissue space) in the carpal tunnel can impair the function of the flexors of the hand due to compression of a nerve. Which nerve would be affected?:

Radial nerve.

Median nerve.

Ulnar nerve.

Axillary nerve.

Musculocutaneous nerve.

median nerve.

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99

Bill suffers a blow to the neck that causes edema that compresses the ventral roots of spinal nerves C2 to C4 on the right side of his body. What symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of the injury?:

a) impaired function of the right arm.

b) Erratic heartbeat.

c) Loss of sympathetic motor function above C2.

d) Difficulty breathing.

e) Loss of parasympathetic motor function below C2.

difficulty breathing

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100

Ten-year-old Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the local emergency room where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal, and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that:

Tina has a spinal injury in the cervical region.

Tina has injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.

Tina has injured one of her descending nerve tracts.

Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

Tina has a spinal injury in the lumbar region.

Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

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