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2nd Opium War (1856-1860)

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2nd Opium War (1856-1860)

2nd war between Britain and China. China lost. Resulted in the opening of all of China to European trade.

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Abbas I

Grandson of Muhammad Ali, under whom Ali's westernization attempts were temporarily halted, but later reinvigorated under subsequent rulers

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Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations. Wrote that economic prosperity and fairness is best achieved through private ownership

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Alexander II of Russia

a Russian tzar who attempted reforms in the 1860s by creating zemstvos and freeing the serfs, ended the Crimean War; assassinated by People's Will

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assembly line

created by Henry Ford. Each factory worker added only one part to a finished product, one after another.

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Bahadur Shah II

Last Mughal ruler. Sent into exile by the British parliament. Ending of Mughal empire

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Berlin Conference of (1884-1885)

Europeans Divide Africa "peacefully". No Africans present at conference. Europeans draw lines through tribes and tribal nations according to their needs. This conference was caused because of the chaos from the Scramble for Africa, so nations did not want to fight anymore. By 1914, most of the continent was annexed by Europeans.

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Boer War (1899-1902)

The Dutch had arrived and settled in Cape Town in Africa. Later on in 1795, the British came and seized Cape Town. The Dutch, now called Boers/Afrikaners, were pushed off their land into the interior of South Africa. There, they discovered diamonds and gold. The British followed and fought this war for the rights to the resources. The British won and South Africa was annexed.

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Boxer Protocol

Required executions of high ranking Chinese rebels and repayment of war costs to the foreign countries of Japan and British as well as a formal apology.

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Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)

Nationalism in China was festering by the 1900s. Anti-Manchu, anti-European, anti-Christian. Goal to drive Europeans and Japanese out of China. Adopted guerilla warfare. Slaughter Christian missionaries and seized control of foreign embassies. Japan and British armies had to come and suppress the revolution.

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British East India Company

A joint stock company that help exclusive rights over British trade with India. They controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.

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Cause of American Revolution

-Unfair taxation -War debt -Lack of representation

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Causes for the French Revolution

  • Taxes on 3rd Estate

  • No Taxes on 1st or 2nd Estate

  • King Louis Lavish Lifestyle

  • National Debt: Wars (French Indian)

  • Famine

  • Inflation: Bread Prices

  • Lack of Representation at Estates General

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Causes of Haitian Revolution

  • French Revolution and Enlightenment -Social and racial inequalities -Slave revolt

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Causes of Latin American Revolutions

  • Influence of Enlightenment ideas -Social inequalities -Removal of peninsulares -Napoleon's invasion of Spain

  • Desire for centralized rule

  • Increasingly educated creole middle class

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Changes and Continuities of Women

Low point in Women's rights. Education, real wages, and jobs were inaccessible. Movements for women's rights began however throughout the world. Political barriers for men were eliminated a lot, but not for women. Literacy rates in China and India remained lower towards those in Europe

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Charles Darwin

Developed the concept of evolution by means of natural selection

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Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

law that suspended Chinese immigration into America. The ban was supposed to last 10 years, but it was expanded several times and was essentially in effect until WWII. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first significant law that restricted immigration into the United States of an ethnic working group. Extreme example of nativism of period

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Committee of Public Safety

Threw out republic constitution of the Convention. All-powerful enforcer of the revolution and murderer of anyone suspected of anti-revolutionary tendencies

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Commodore Matthew Perry

In 1853, he came from the US to Japan on a steamboat and demanded that the Japanese open up to trade.

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Communist Manifesto

Started that working class would revolt and take control of the means of production. Said workers had opportunities but because of the exploitation of capitalism, could never improve themselves. the government, the courts, the police, and the church were on the side of the rich. Once the class struggle was solved, there would be no class or government. Was foundation for communism and socialism

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Congress of Vienna (1814)

Held in Austria. Seeked a balance of power of European countries. Borders of Europe were cute back to their pre-Napoleonic dimensions. Created new kingdoms of Poland and the Netherlands. Reaffirmed absolute rule in France, Spain, Holland, and Italian states.

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Cotton Gin

1793 created by Eli Whitney. Allowed massive amounts of cotton to be quickly processed in the Americas and exported to Europe. Textile industry in mills not homes anymore

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Count Camillo Cavour

Prime minister of Sardinia, appointed by Victor Emmanuel II. Helped nationalism take off in Italy. Enlisted help of Europeans to boot out Austria from Italy.

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Declaration of independence

1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining and asserting why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.

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Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26, 1789: Created by the National Assembly and stated all men are equal. Limited monarchy. Taxes were taxed based on the ability to pay. Took over the church and church land. Placed the church under state control.

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Difference between Indian+African and Chinese imperialism

In China, Britain fought for trading concession, not colonial establishment. Africa and India were turned into colonies

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Established after the Reign of Terror/ National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years. Created new constitution

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Domestic system (prior to Industrial Revolution)

Middlemen drop off wool or cotton at homes. Women in the homes would make cloth with it. Middlemen would pick up cloth and sell it to buyers. Very labor intensive

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Downfall of Napoleon

France lacked resources to keep huge empire under control. Conflicts and nationalistic uprisings (ex: guerilla warfare in Spain and Portugal), undermined Napoleon. Last straw came when Napoleon attacked Russia during winter which caused massive loss.

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Effect of American Revolution

-Independence for America -Federal Democracy

  • Inspiration spreads to France, Haiti, and Mexico

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Effect of French Revolution

-Rise of Napoleon -Congress of Vienna

  • Constitutional Monarchy

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Effect of the Haitian Revolution

-Independence -Destruction of economy -Antislavery movements worldwide

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Effects of Latin American Revolutions

-Independence -Continued inequalities -Federal democracy (Mexico)

  • Creole republics -Constitutional monarchy (Brazil)

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Emancipation Edict

(1861) The imperial law that abolished serfdom. Did nothing. Serks given small plots of land, but they still had to give payments to the government to keep the land. Some tried to migrate to cities to work in industries, but work was harsh.

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Process in which public lands that were shared in the Middle Ages were enclosed by fences, allowing for private farming and private gain

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Estates General

"governing body" of France. Called together by Louis XVI in 1789 because of his financial problems. First Estate: Priest and religious officials. Second Estate: noble families, government officials, landowners. Third Estate: Merchants, farmers, artisans. Paid all the taxes for France

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European Effect on Africa

Added infrastructure, Christian missionaries, European schools, and stripped Africa of its profit while treating natives harshly. Every colonial power except Britain exercised direct rule of its colonies.

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Ex of unpopular laws passed on the colonists on behalf of the British government

The Revenue Act (1764) The Stamp Act (1765) The Tea Act (1773)

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Factory Act of 1883 (Britain)

limited hours of workday, restricted child labor, required safer and cleaner working conditions

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Flying Shuttle

1773 created by John Kay. Sped up weaving process

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Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

In order to get the Catholic German regions under his control, Bismarck formed an alliance with these states and provoked the France into a war. When Prussia won, they consolidated the German Catholic regions under their control.

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Free Market System (Capitalism)

Individuals= private ownership and sell their products in a free/open market. Demand for goods and services determine prices and availability

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French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. French enlisted help of the Algonquin and Iroquois. British victory. Expanded boundaries of Americans, and pushed French boundary up north

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Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot and radical whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state.

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Good Effects of Alexander II Reforms

Growth of a small middle class. Arts flourished. Intellectual class in European economic and political thought began to assert itself against the monarchy.

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Growth of Nationalism

Used everywhere on the world, but for different reasons. In Italy and Germany, it was used to unify. It drove Americans for independence. Drove resistance to European colonialism in Asia, India, and Africa. It drove Europeans to compete for colonies. It was used in China to try and get rid of the Manchu. It was used in France to unite under Napoleon.

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Indian National Congress

A mostly Hindu political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in colonial government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

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Industrial Revolution

A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s. Started in Britain and spread to the rest of the world

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Industrial Revolution on working class.

underpaid, put in danger everyday, 16hr workday, child labor, women logged hours at factories while also maintaining the rule of mother and wife at home

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interchangeable parts

Eli Whitney system. Machines and their parts were produced uniformly so that they could be easily replaced when something broke

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Italy (after unification)

Eventually won control of Venetia and Rome. Shaky European boundaries because many of its southern provinces were very Austrian or French. The previous city states of Italy were also very culturally different.

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Radicals that worked for the Convention and Committee of Public Safety. Killed King Louis and Marie Antoinette for treason and other anti-revolutionaries

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Jacques Dessalines

L'Ouverture's lieutenant and former slave who continued the Haitian fight against the French. He proclaimed Haiti a free republic and named himself governor-general for life

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John VI of Portugal

Portuguese king. Fled to Brazil and set up royal court when Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807. ONce Napoleon was gone, he returned back but left his son Pedro behind to govern Brazil

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Jose de San Martin

Creole who served as an officer in the Spanish army. Took control of Argentinian armies in 1814. Joined up with Bolivar and Bernardo O'Higgins to take revolution to Argentina, Chile, and Peru.

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Jose Morelos

Picked up where Hidalgo left. Led the revolutionaries to further success against the loyalists. Landowning class turned against him when he wanted to redistribute land to the poor. 1815: executed

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Karl Marx

A German economist, theorist, sociologist, and philosopher most notable for his works criticizing capitalism and advocating communism, a classless, collective socialist society.

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Labor union

Vehicles which workers bargained for better working conditions, threatened to strike, or shut down factories.

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laissez-faire capitalism

an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role

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Latin American POV on the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Benefitted at times from protection of US. However, some saw this protection as a form of imperialism.

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Latin Vs American Revolution

Similar: Slavery continued to exist for decades after. Peasants still worked for landowners Difference: Middle class emerged in US, Enlightenment ideas influenced only elite in Latin America, Catholic Church remained powerful in Latin America, Latin America continued to depend on Europe economically

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England workers who destroyed industrial machines that destroyed their livelihood.

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Main points of this period

Industrialization, impact of the Enlightenment, the end of slavery, military superiority, nationalism, imperialism, racism, capitalism, and marxism

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Major Developments of the time period

  • European Dominance of long distance trade

  • Industrialization's effects on the world

  • Imperialism and the inequalities it creates

  • Political revolution/renewed spirit of wanting change

  • Policy changes

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Maximilien Robespierre

Revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility by beheading tens of thousands of French citizens

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Meji Restoration (1868)

Japanese nationalists and the leadership of the samurai revolted against the shogun who had ratified the treaties of Kanagawa. Restored Emperor Meiji to power. After this restoration, Japan westernized very quickly to become a world power. They build railways, steamship, abolished the samurai warrior class, adopted constitutions, and defeated other major former powers.

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Mexican Revolution

Rejection of the 30 year dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz. Revolutionaries elected Francisco Madero, but was overthrown later when the revolutionaries decided they didn't like him either. Revolution culminated in 1917 with the creation of Mexico's current constitution

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Miguel Hidalgo

In 1810, this Creole priest who sympathized with those who had been abused under Spanish colonialism, led a revolt against Spanish rule. Spanish rule resisted and executed him

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Monroe Doctrine (1823)

Monroe declared western hemisphere was off limits to European aggression, even though US was not that powerful. Britain agreed to back up the US in fear that Spain would rekindle with the Americas

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More innovations of the time

Telegraph, telephone, lightbulb, internal combustion engine, radio

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Muhammad Ali (Egypt)

In 1805, he defeated the French and the Ottomans and gained control of Egypt. Egypt remained a viceroy of the Ottomans. He wielded complete control and began the industrialization of Egypt and the expansion of agriculture towards cotton production.

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Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

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Napoleon reign

Conquered parts of Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and parts of Italy. Dissolved Holy Roman Empire. Peak at 1810

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Napoleonic Code (1804)

Purpose was to reform France and keep control over France. Equality of citizens (men) before law and abolition of serfdom and feudalism (very enlightenment inspired). Sadly, any gains made by women and children previously were lost because of the Napoleonic code. Still in effect today, although severely modified

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National Assembly

New name of Third Estate after breaking away from Estates General on June 17, 1789

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Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style economies and politics to continue, which often caused monoculture (a country only producing one main export like sugar, oil, etc). Causes wealth and money to remain in the hands of landowners only

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Open Door policy, 1899

Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China which proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis; thus, no international power would have total control of the country. The Open Door policy was rooted in desire of American businesses to exploit Chinese markets it could not reach because of European spheres of influence.

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Opium War (1839-1842)

War between Britain and China over trading rights, particularly Britain's desire to continue selling opium to Chinese traders. The resulting trade agreement prompted Americans to seek similar concessions from the Chinese. Chinese lost because of their lack of modern weapons (lack due to the fact that they were isolationist during the Ming Dynasty)

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Otto von Bismarck

Prime minister of Prussia in charge of building the military and consolidating the region under its authority. Defeated Austria and other German principalities. Started the Franco-Prussian War.

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Ottoman Empire

"Sick man of Europe". Loss territory to Russians. Independence movements of nationalist Greeks, Arabs, and Egyptians. Only survived because Britain and France held it up so that Russia would not expand further.

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Pedro II of Brazil

Song of Pedro I of Brazil. Ruled country throughout 19th century Brazil. Reformed society in many ways and made it an exporter of coffee. Under his rule, slavery in Brazil was abolished in 1888 technically by his daughter. Landowning class was angered as a result and overthrew the monarchy to establish 1889 republic

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Pedro of Brazil

Son of John VI. Declared independence of Brazil and crowned himself emperor. Constitution made under his rule

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Pierre Toussaint L'Ouverture

Former slave who led a violent, but ultimately successful slave revolt against the French in Haiti

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Political member of the coalition against Napoleon

Prince von Metternich of Austria, Alexander I of Russia, Duke of Wellington of Britain

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Porfirio Diaz

Dictator in Mexico from 1876 to 1911. Overthrown by the Mexican Revolution of 1910 because he was a pawn for landowners

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Purpose of unpopular acts of the British on colonists

to raise additional revenue for the British government after fighting many wars

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Reasons for imperialism (Europe)

  • securing raw materials needed to make goods

  • secure markets to sell the goods manufactured in industrial factories

  • new weapons made it easier to conquer

  • nationalism

  • racism and social darwinism

  • desire to spread Christianity

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Reasons for Italian and German Unification

Desire to industrialize. Nationalist sentiments

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Reform Capitalism effects

Growing middle class. Education more accessible. End of slave trade. Women left factories and returned to traditional role but also started to gather and organize women's right groups.

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Result of Monroe Doctrine

European continued to invest money in Latin America businesses. Europeans didn't make territorial claims

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Robert Clive

Led an army that rid the Indian subcontinent of the French. Successfully conquered the Bengal region and set up administrative regions through the empire

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Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Stated that United States would intervene in financial disputes between European powers and countries in the Americas, to maintain peace

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Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden"

British writer; called responsibility to spread religion and culture to people whom they considered to be less civilized-the idea that Europeans could and should "civilize" more primitive, nonwhite peoples- racist idea of imperialism

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Created by Alexander III after death of Alexander II. Suppressed anything anti-Russian. All Russian were expected to learn Russian language and convert to Russian Orthodoxy. Those who didn't were killed.

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Scientific Revolution vs Industrial Revolution

Scientific: learning, discovering, evaluating, and understanding the world Industrial: Applying the newfound understanding to practical ends

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Scramble for Africa

Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa. 3 Major players: England, France, Germany

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Self-Strengthening Movement

1860s movement when the Qing gov tried to get its act together and reform, but without having to Westernize. ultimately failed

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Sepoy Mutiny (1857)

Sepoys- Indians who worked for the British East India company. Saw the company was eating up more and more of India and did not respect the customs of Muslims or Hindus. Revolted for 2 years, but failed. However, did led to the British parliament stepping in, taking control of India away from the BEIC, and making India a crown colony.

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Simon Bolivar

Appointed governor of Venezuela. trained in republican ideals of Rousseau so he established a Spanish national congress. Congress declared independence from Spain. Fought and easily won civil war against royalists and won freedom for Gran Colombia (Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela)

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