Sem1 psychology

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Evoulutionary perspective

1 / 208

Tags and Description

209 Terms

1

Evoulutionary perspective

A psychology perspective by Charles Darwin which includes natural selection, survival, cavemen, etc.

New cards
2

Gestalt Psychology

A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts

New cards
3

Introspection

Examination of one's own thoughts and feelings/Detailed sensory description

New cards
4

Structuralism

An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. People: William Wundt and Titchener. From Nature - Innate.

New cards
5

Biological Perspective

The psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior, Ex. Brain, hormones, genes, neurotransmitters, physical.

New cards
6

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic perspective

Freud. Role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality.

New cards
7

human factors psychology

a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

New cards
8

Functionalism

An early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. From Nurture -comes from experience.

New cards
9

cognitive perspective

A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. Thoughts, mental processes, interpretations.

New cards
10

Humanistic perspective

stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices. People: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

New cards
11

School psychology

devoted to counseling children in elementary and secondary schools who have academic or emotional problems

New cards
12

Behavioral perspective

Rewards/Punishments, conditioning, environment, observational learning. People: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov

New cards
13

control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

New cards
14

random sample

A representative sample from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected

New cards
15

experimental group

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

New cards
16

naturalistic observation

Describes an individual´s or animal´s behavior in their natural setting.

New cards
17

independent variable

variable that is manipulated/changed

New cards
18

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

New cards
19

single-blind study

study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group, but the researcher does

New cards
20

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

New cards
21

experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

New cards
22

representative sample

randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects

New cards
23

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

New cards
24

descriptive statistics

statistics that summarize the data collected in a study - meaningful

New cards
25

correlation coefficient

the correlation coefficient tells us the strength and direction of the relationship, it goes from -1 to +1.

New cards
26

operational definition

the measurement of the dependent value with numbers, ratings, etc.

New cards
27

confounding variable

an extraneous variable that could skew results. ex: time of day, gender, age, sleep, etc.

New cards
28

correlation(+/-)CORRELATION DOES NOT SHOW CAUSATION

indicates that the two factors will either move in the same or opposite direction, otherwise known as direct relations

New cards
29

dependent variable

The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.

New cards
30

inferential statistics

The type of statistics tells us if our results could have been due to chance. If there is a less than 5% probability that their results were due to chance, they are statistically significant.

New cards
31

placebo effect

a change in a patient´s illness that is a result of the imagined treatment

New cards
32

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

New cards
33

measures of central tendency

mean, median, mode, the center of the data

New cards
34

debrief

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

New cards
35

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

New cards
36

dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

New cards
37

myelin sheath

it insulates the axon and allows speed(Faster) - think of phone charger

New cards
38

all-or-none principle

Refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full-blown or not at all.

New cards
39

synapse

Gap between neurons

New cards
40

acetylcholine

associated with muscle movement, memory(alzheimers, paralysis)

New cards
41

serotonin

mood, sleep(depression, sleep and eating disorder)

New cards
42

central nervous system

consists of the brain and spinal cord

New cards
43

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

New cards
44

cerebellum

Balance and coordination

New cards
45

hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

New cards
46

frontal lobe

where the highest level processing tasks occurs - personality, executive functions, organization, planning ahead, working memory.

New cards
47

parietal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch and body position.

New cards
48

soma

cell body of a neuron

New cards
49

resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse

New cards
50

efferent neurons

motor neurons, carry info from your brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs.

New cards
51

Hippocampus

memory formation for explicit/declarative memories

New cards
52

brain stem

Connects the brain and spinal cord

New cards
53

axon terminal buttons

Where neurotransmitters are started and released

New cards
54

Reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

New cards
55

endorphins

pain control(runner´s high, feel good after exercising, acupuncture)

New cards
56

peripheral nervous system

A division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord.

New cards
57

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

New cards
58

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

New cards
59

limbic system

neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.

New cards
60

Wenicke's aphasia

Left temporal lobe damage (specifically in Wernicke's area)

Speech is fluent but nonsensical - understanding

New cards
61

Broca's aphasia

condition resulting from damage to Broca's area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly - speaking

New cards
62

temporal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.

New cards
63

right and left hemispheres

The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts.

New cards
64

polarization

neuron is positive on the outside, negative on the inside

New cards
65

axon

A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.

New cards
66

cerebrum

Big area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body

New cards
67

adrenaline

a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion.

New cards
68

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

New cards
69

dopamine

movement, alertness, reward(Parkinson, schizophrenia)

New cards
70

GABA

a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, calms the brain(anxiety, insomnia)

New cards
71

autonomic nervous system

controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands(automaticaly)

New cards
72

pituitary gland

Master gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

New cards
73

Amygdala

A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.

New cards
74

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

New cards
75

occipital lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information

New cards
76

lesion

tissue destruction

New cards
77

refractory period

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

New cards
78

afterimage

A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed. Opponent-process color theory explains this.

New cards
79

bottom-up processing

based on the sensory information available in the environment

New cards
80

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex (occiptal lobe)that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

New cards
81

motion parallax

the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away - monocular depth cue

New cards
82

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

New cards
83

proximity

Gestalt grouping principle; we group nearby figures together

New cards
84

retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

New cards
85

rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

New cards
86

cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

New cards
87

similarity

the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group - gestalt psychology

New cards
88

Connectedness

we group together things that are connected as one unit

New cards
89

stroboscopic movement

a type of apparent movement based on the rapid succession of still images, as in motion pictures

New cards
90

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

New cards
91

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

New cards
92

Gestalt Principles

Describe the top-down processing that organizes sensory information into distinct forms. Six principles: nearness, similarity, common region, closure, continuity, and figure & ground

New cards
93

Muller-Lyer Illusion

illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different

New cards
94

middle ear

the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

New cards
95

Continuity

we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

New cards
96

ganglion cells

the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain

New cards
97

Closure

we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object

New cards
98

inner ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

New cards
99

vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

New cards
100

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses - transduction

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 73 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3479 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard138 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 237 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(9)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 436 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(6)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)