PSYC211 Semester 2

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

central nervous system (CNS)

1 / 269

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

270 Terms

1

central nervous system (CNS)

encompasses the brain and the spinal cord, receives, processes and responds to sensory information

New cards
2

peripheral nervous system

nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. communication network between the CNS and the body. sensory and motor neurons.

New cards
3

somatic nervous system

division of the PNS that controls the bodies skeletal muscles

New cards
4

afferent

input to a nerve

New cards
5

efferent

output of a nerve

New cards
6

cranial nervess

12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain

New cards
7

spinal nerves

21 pairs go in and out of the brain, come in through the dorsal (back) side and leave through the ventral (front) side

New cards
8

forebrain

telencephalon- cerebral cortex

diencephalon- subcortical

New cards
9

neurons

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

New cards
10

neurons- voltage

have a negative membrane potential of -70mv while resting. flow of ions across the membrane cause changes in potential which creates an electrical impulse.

New cards
11

ions involved in action potential

sodium enters the cells, potassium leaves

New cards
12

sodium concentration

concentration gradient of sodium is into the cell

electrical gradient for sodium is also into the cell

New cards
13

action potential

rapid change in the voltage of the cell’s membrane, when action potential occurs the neuron is said to have fired.

New cards
14

graded potential

stimuli opening a gated channel causing a change in the membrane potential.

New cards
15

ESPS

Excitatory post-synaptic potential

New cards
16

Hodgkin-Huxley Cycle

describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated.

synaptic/receptor potential → initial depolarisation of membrane →opening of sodium channels → sodium flows into neuron

New cards
17

depolarisation

the change from a negative resting potential to a positive action potential

New cards
18

how many nerves are in the skull receiving or sending messages?

12

New cards
19

electrical gradient

unlike charges attract

New cards
20

concentration gradient

diffusion across a membrane

New cards
21

ion channels

voltage gated sodium channels. A certain voltage is required for them to open.

causes a positive feedback loop.

New cards
22

action potential propagation

travels along axon, at 0.5 to 2 meters per second

New cards
23

myelin

wraps around axons and speeds up action potential propagation. myelin acts as insulation and prevents the voltage channels from being operative in that region.

New cards
24

multiple sclerosis

myelin sheath destruction, causes a disruption in nerve impulse conduction

New cards
25

retina

groups of cells that are responsive to photons and light projected onto the retina.

New cards
26

rod

scoptic; important in low light. poor acuity achromatic vision in low light levels.

New cards
27

cone

photo-topic; high acuity colour vision in good illumination

New cards
28

fovea

where visual acuity is the highest “small pit”.

New cards
29

ipRGC

intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, respond to light

New cards
30

synaptic transmission

one neuron communicates with another. a neurotransmitter is released from the pre-synaptic neuron. the neurotransmitter then binds to receptor causing an ion channel to open or close, the ions travel across a membrane changing electrical potential. (neuronal communication)

New cards
31

lateral inhibition

neurons response to a stimulus is inhibited by the excitation (applied energy to something) of a neighboring neuron

New cards
32

how many types of cones are there

3

New cards
33

opponent processes in motivation

approach, avoidance arises from competition between the drive to pursue reward and to avoid harm.

New cards
34

visual world maps onto the retina

objects on the left hand side of the visual field will be reflected onto the right side of the retina, the opposite is true for the right hand side of the visual field.

New cards
35

lateral geniculate nucleus

nucleus or sub area of the thalamus. visual cells in V-1 that respond to lines.

New cards
36

primary visual cortex

where 90% of visual information goes after LGN.

New cards
37

optic chiasm

the cross over from left visual field to the right side of the retina and the right visual field to the left side of the retina.

New cards
38

LGN retinotopic map

mapping from where the image falls on the retina is mapped within the lateral geniculate nucleus

New cards
39

simple cells

cells in V1 that respond to line, or gradient, orientated in particular direction

New cards
40

complex cells

cells in V1 that give best response to moving lines of a particular orientation. are orientation selective. nearly all binocular.

New cards
41

what is the difference between simple and complex cells?

complex cells are not binary, there is no, on/off area. where there is for simple cells.

New cards
42

process from visual field to retina

  1. retinal ganglion cells

  2. LGN

  3. simple cells

  4. complex cells

New cards
43

topographic organisation

information from the external world is mapped spatially in the brain

New cards
44

top-down processing

cortex makes assumptions about the environment and fills in gaps

New cards
45

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information.

New cards
46

V5 motion

ventral stream goes to V5. focuses on how an object is moving.

New cards
47

neurological evidence of V5

people with bilateral damage of V5 develop akinetopsia, the failure to perceive motion

New cards
48

sound pressure

waves in the air have repeating pressure pulses at particular frequencies and wavelengths. low frequency = waves further apart

New cards
49

pressure pulses

travel at 340 metres/second

New cards
50

humans can hear

20 to 20,000 Hz however we have age related hearing loss

New cards
51

hearing

Sound waves entering the outer ear then push on the ear drum of the middle ear which pulses the bones also in the middle ear. The bones press on the Cochlea which has a tectorial membrane that pushes up and down with the sound pulses which makes hair cells cilia move and down which opens the ion channels and allows the pressure waves to be turned into electrical signals. (The Organ of corti is just the combo of tectorial membrane, sensory hair cells and the basilar membrane).

New cards
52

cochlea

where sound information is received

New cards
53

hair cells

respond to movement, mechanical movement causes ion change and electrical impulses

New cards
54

transduction

sound frequency to spatial representation

New cards
55

McGurk effect

visual speech is affecting auditory speech. The way a person move’s their mouth effects the way they hear the auditory information.

New cards
56

dorsal stream

runs over the top of the cortex, uses visual information to guide the body. movements used for grasping a target.

New cards
57

ventral stream

identify what the objects are, shape, size and texture

New cards
58

Jennifer Aniston cells

certain cells respond to particular people/faces. individual cells that fire for specific people.

New cards
59

invariance

remaining unchanged regardless of the changes in the conditions of the measurements.

New cards
60

gnostic/grandmother cells

neuron which encodes and responds to a highly specific but complex stimulus e.g., grandmother

New cards
61

grandmother cell (local coding) theory

the coding in the nervous system in hierarchal and cells only fire when looking at specific stimulus.

New cards
62

problems with the local coding theory

1- requires a large number of grandmother cells, everything would have to be represented by a single cell.

2- susceptible to damage

3- how does one perceive novel objects

4- probability that you happen to come across the one cell that responds to a specific photo us extremely unlikely.

5-generalisation is difficult

6- pattern completion and generalisation requires access to representations of other similar objects.

New cards
63

Dense encoding theory

ensemble or population of cells that represent an image or idea. the representation is distributed across a number of cells, these cells are able to communicate with each other and the sum of activity creates representations.

New cards
64

dense encoding

  • pattern completion and generalisation

  • requires overlap between representations

  • distributed representation

New cards
65

local encoding

  • pattern separation

  • requires separation of representations

  • grandmother cells

  • sparse encoding

New cards
66

distributed encoding

spread across many cells, all cells respond when you see an object

New cards
67

Doris Tsao- facial representation code

took a series of faces and deconstructed them into component parts. landmarks represent that face shape. found cells that seemed to respond to one of the particular features that seemed to make faces different in terms of shape and appearance.

New cards
68

convergent hierarchical coding

cells firing for each feature of an object converge on a common target cell that is representative of those collective feature. potentially faster but inflexible and hardwired, ineffective for coding modified or novel objects or experiences.

New cards
69

temporal binding

features that occur together in time are more likely to be related. distributed neural responses are tied together by the coordinated timing of their firing patterns. “cells that fire together, wire together”.

New cards
70

pareidolia

ambiguous information where the nervous system interprets something else.

New cards
71

multi-store model of memory

sensory memory > working memory > long-term memory (retrieval and rehearsal causes working memory to stay in long term memory).

New cards
72

Memory

each psychologically significant event, sensation, perception, expectation, memory or though is the result of a particular pattern of activity in a group of interconnected neurons (assembly).

New cards
73

Donald Hebb memory storing

long-term memory depends on changes in synaptic strength

New cards
74

how do synapses strengthen

when presynaptic and postsynaptic cells fire together (cells that fire together, wire together).

New cards
75

reactivation

patterns of neural activity are re-expressed when experiences are remembered.

New cards
76

fear induction

pain neurons firing at the same time as neurons representing visual stimuli creates fear,

New cards
77

long term potentiation (LTP)

synapses can be strengthened by artificial electrical stimulation. after LTP there is an increase in neural activity and more receptors are available. physical changes at the synapses are helping change the strength of the synapse.

New cards
78

why does LTP occur?

extra stimulation causes glutamate to bind to NMDA receptor and the ion channels associated opens and lets Mg2+ out and Ca2+ in

New cards
79

how to test LTP

rat in a pool tries to find platform. those with NMDA antagonist do much worse. over activation of LTP also confuses rats.

New cards
80

testing LTP against memory

  • show that blocking LTP prevents memory formation

  • show that reversal of LTP produces forgetting

  • show that learning leads to LTP-like changes

  • show that producing LPT creates false memories or masks existing memories.

New cards
81

NMDA

blocks receptors, high dosage blocks LTP

New cards
82

Morris water maze

test of memory in lab rodents. placing rodents in tank of water, animals work out the location of the pond. a day later take the platform out and see if the animal searches doe the quadrant where that platform was. disrupting LTP maintenance with ZIP produces forgetting.

New cards
83

equipotentiality

the idea that memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than confined to any specific location. Other parts of the brain can adapt if areas are damaged.

New cards
84

area V4

involved with storing colour

New cards
85

patient M.P. bilateral lesion of V5

difficulty with everyday tasks, no smooth movement akinetopsia

New cards
86

motion detection

  • captures attention

  • separates foreground and background

  • helps compute the distance of various objects

  • computes 3D shapes

New cards
87

binding

brain integrates activity (form, colour, size, orientation, texture, direction of movement).

New cards
88

Patient H.M.

removed hippocampus and amygdala to stop seizures. post surgery suffers anterograde amnesia. had intact short term memory but could not create new memories.

New cards
89

H.M. deficits showed us that…

  • intelligence is not about having a good memory

  • dissociation of declarative memory from working and procedural memory

  • the hippocampus and rhinal cortex is involved in memory consolidation

New cards
90

patient RB

ischemic episode during open heart surgery. anterograde amnesia and very minor retrograde amnesia.

New cards
91

patient NA

had a mini fencing stick shoved up his nose. Anterograde amnesia and visual learning deficit.

New cards
92

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

occurs in heavy drinkers, producing similar memory deficits to those that result from temporal lobe damage. result of lack of thiamine (vitamin B1). Damage to dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus.

New cards
93

types of explicit memory

episodic and semantic

New cards
94

types of implicit memory

procedural, priming, conditioning, habituation

New cards
95

egocentric

represent space relative to our body or the individual (left/right)

New cards
96

allocentric

reference to the external world (North, South) relative to others.

New cards
97

beacon homing

travelling directly towards a fixed landmark, uses egocentric cues

New cards
98

path integration/dead reckoning

calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, and advancing that position based on known or estimated speeds, elapsed time, and course

New cards
99

piloting

a type of navigation using landmarks relative distance

New cards
100

rat study water navigation

rats with hippocampal damage had issues with piloting, though they were fine when using beacon homing.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 130 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 82 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17173 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(11)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard195 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard104 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard242 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)