history semester 2 study guide

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110 Terms

1

imperialism

a policy in which a state takes political and economic control of areas beyond borders

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2

colonization

the expansion of countries into other countries where they establish settlements and control the people

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3

Roosevelt Corollary

extension of Monroe Doctrine declaring that the US would police unstable Latin American debtor nations

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4

sphere of influence

an area within which the political and economic interests of one nation are more important than those of other nations

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5

informal imperialism

one country establishes indirect control over a nation or territory often for economic purposes

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6

capital

the tools, machines, and buildings used to produce goods and services

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7

Monroe Doctrine

a U.S. foreign policy focused on keeping European powers from controlling any Latin American nation

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8

Spanish-American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

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9

what is the relationship between imperialist powers?

competition was fierce- control of key locations/resources could give major advantage

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10

factors that led to rise of imperialism

  1. industrialization

  2. political motives

  3. socio-economic motives

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11

mechanized nations productivity

nations that mechanized their manufacturing became more productive

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12

industrialization impacting imperialism

increase in supply of natural resources, larger markets, increased wealth and power (advantage in warfare against less developed countries)

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13

imperialism and economic investment

guarantee of future resources, labor, and market place for industrialized goods

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14

Spanish-American war impacting the US

-gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines -intervened in Nicaragua, Haiti, and Dominican Republic -helped Panama break away from Colombia (acquire Panama Canal)

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15

what countries had control of other countries?

India- Britain Persia- split between Russia and Britain Korea- Japan Britain wanted control of China Egypt- Britain Tunisia and Algeria- France

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16

colonization and China

China- world's largest population = largest market for European products China- weak military- couldn't resist european advances -Britain, France, Germany, and Russia all demanded things from China -Britain eventually establishes an informal empire

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17

colonization and Africa

nearly all of Africa was under European control faced future of political, economic, and social domination instability in Egypt helped trigger the scramble for Africa Britain overtook Egypt and the Suez Canal France expanded into Tunisia and Algeria Germany joined in- western coastal region Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy soon became involved countries were met with resistance from native people -Ethiopia was the only successful country

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18

lasting impacts of imperialism

-by 1900, western states controlled half of Asia, 90% of Africa -many people died -westernization -built railroads and warehouses to support their economic goals -didn't encourage colonies to industrialize -imperialism strengthened European nationalism, led to internal tensions -eventually many Europeans saw negative effects of imperialism

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19

triple alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

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20

Allies of WWI (Triple Entente)

France, Great Britain, Russia (U.S. later)

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21

Schlieffen plan

A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts

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22

trench warfare

a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.

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23

Zimmerman Telegram

a telegram Germany sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.

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24

14 points

issued by US president Woodrow Wilson in January 1918- list of term to end this and future wars

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25

reparations

payment for damages after a war

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26

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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27

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

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28

nationalism

idea that citizens feel loyalty to their nation above other people or organizations

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29

propaganda

ideas, allegations, and other information that is spread deliberately to further a cause or damage an opposing cause, and that is often exaggerated or false

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30

what set off WWI?

assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

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31

what drew most of Europe into WWI?

alliances between countries

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32

warfare technology in WWI

rapid-fire machine gun, long-range artillery gun, poison gas, armored tanks, Zeppelins, u-boats

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33

when did WWI start?

July 28, 1914

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34

when did WWI end?

November 11, 1918

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35

who was blamed for WWI?

Germany - had to pay reparations and had to reduce the size of their army.

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36

what was the German tactic that drew the US into war?

sinking Lusitania- ship with Americans aboard

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37

was everyone satisfied with the peace settlement following WWI?

no- both sides were dissatisfied

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38

why did Russia drop out of WWI?

revolution in Russia

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39

Kristallnacht

"Night of Broken Glass," when Nazis attacked Jews throughout Germany

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40

nationalists

A person who advocates political independence for a country

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41

Stalinism

regimes of terror and brutal totalitarian rule

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42

coup d'etat

the sudden, violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group

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43

who organized fascism?

Mussolini

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44

what did Mussolini do while ruling Italy?

Italy became totalitarian state lived under fascism economy was corporatism wanted to restore Italy to glory days of ancient Roman empire- invaded Ethiopia drew closer to Hitler

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45

how did Germans feel about the Nazi party?

it was desperate times, so they were more willing to accept the party's extreme views

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46

why did Germans not like the Weimar Republic?

blamed for signing treaty of Versailles, slow in handling difficult problems of Germany

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47

Spanish Civil War

-started July 17, 1936 when generals Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco launched an uprising to overthrow democratic republic state -needed assistance- Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy agreed to help -200,000+ people died as a result of systematic killing, mob violence, torture, or other brutalities -fighting displaces millions of Spaniards -Franco became dictator of Spain- ruled until his death in 1975

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48

Stalin's First Five Year Plan

focused on industry and agriculture

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49

appeasement

making concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid conflict

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50

munich conference

settlement reached in September 1938 in which GB and France agreed to let Germany annex part of Czechoslovakia

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51

blitzkrieg

lightning war; military tactic that used swift and highly coordinated attacks to conquer enemies

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52

Atlantic charter

the statement of principles and war goals reached by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941, which later formed the basis for the charter of the United Nations

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53

Pearl Harbor

attack on December 7, 1941 by the Japanese on the US pacific fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor that made the US join WW2

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54

final solution

Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people

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55

isolationism

a country's policy of avoiding political, economic, or military conflicts with other nations

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56

Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister during WWII

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57

leapfrogging

Allied strategy in the Pacific to focus on less heavily defended islands

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58

Mariana campaign

landmark victory- gave Allies a secure base to make long-range bombing raids on Japan

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59

Albert Einstein

1939- German-born Jewish scientist; sent a letter to President FDR saying Germany had the resources to begin building nuclear weapons

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60

what countries left the League of Nations? why?

Japan- seized Manchuria and was pressured to return it Germany- began to rebuild military Italy- build New Roman Empire

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61

what was the last country fighting Germany in 1941?

Britain

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62

how did the US enter WW2?

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

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63

why did the allies bomb German cities?

to lower citizen morale

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64

How did the Allied forces liberate France from the Nazis?

entered through the English Channel to Normandy, France

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65

battle of the bulge

WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west

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66

why did Japan surrender in WW2?

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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67

how many people were killed in WW2?

60 million

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68

what event would cause Britain and France to declare war on Germany?

the invasion of Poland

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69

Where were the atomic bombs dropped?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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70

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

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71

Marshall Plan

financial aid plan to assist post-war recovery in Europe

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72

nuclear freeze movement

1980s protests calling for a mutual freeze on the testing, production, and deployment of nuclear weapons and of missiles and aircraft designed primarily to deliver nuclear weapons.

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73

brinkmanship

the willingness of the U.S. under eisenhower to go to the edge of all out war

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74

McCarthyism

The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

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75

iron curtain

the ideological barrier that divided Eastern and Western Europe during the Cold War

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76

where did the first UN meet?

San Francisco

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77

Who are the permanent members of the UN?

China, France, Russia, UK, US

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78

how did the UN respond to the Palestine conflicts?

partitioned Palestine- divided into Arab and Jewish territories

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79

How was Germany divided after WWII?

4 sections - Great Britain, France, United States, Soviet Union. Capital Berlin divided among the 4

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80

why were relations tense at the Potsdam conference?

Truman and Stalin were suspicious of one another and their intentions

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81

How did Mao hope to strengthen communism in China?

-putting power in hands of Communist Party -restructured economy based on Marxist principles -organizing agriculture along socialist lines -putting most factories under state ownership -"great leap forward"- set higher targets for agriculture and industry

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82

developed country

wealthy nations with substantial industrialization

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83

non-developed country

poor nations with little or no industrialization

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84

why did the US get involved in the Vietnam War?

Stop the spread of communism

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85

result of the Vietnam war

US withdrew and the North won

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86

result of Korean war

cease-fire (still in existence today) reached in 1953 and the border was restored at the 38th parallel

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87

what was life like for the Soviets under Gorbachev's rule?

-faced various shortages of consumer goods -faced severe housing crisis -struggled to make ends meet

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88

why did the Cold war begin?

US and SU had different ambitions for the future after WW2 in Europe

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89

What year did the Korean War end?

1953

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90

lasting impacts of the cold war

-UN established -CIA created -firm anti-communist demeanor expected from everyone- especially those in the government -now accustomed to thinking about current moment in global terms -normalized surveillance, generalized anxiety, obsession with security

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91

how long did the cold war last?

1945-1991

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92

archipelago

A group of islands

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93

apartheid

a system of racial separation in South Africa, designed to create a fully segregated society

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94

cyber-terrorism

using digital technology to disrupt business and affect services

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95

"America First"

protecting ourselves over others

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96

nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

nonprofit organizations that operate outside of governments, often with a focus on humanitarian or environmental concerns

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97

Helinski Accords

non-binding agreement designed to reduce Cold War tensions between the Eastern Bloc and the Western countries

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98

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

adopted by the UN in 1948; right to life, liberty, and equality before the law and freedom of religion, expression, and assembly

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99

doctors without borders

aimed to deliver emergency medical aid quickly and effectively to people in need, especially those affected by conflicts, epidemics, and disasters

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100

secularization

the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions.

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