Unit 10

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Personality

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Psychology

105 Terms

1

Personality

Described as an enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that makes someone unique.

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2

Graphology

The study of handwriting and how it relates to personality.

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3

Person

In the Person-Situation Controversy, those who argue for the _____________(Person/Situation) argue that Personality is simply the Grouping of All Traits that someone has.

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4

Situation

In the Person-Situation Controversy, those who argue for the _____________(Person/Situation) argue that Traits are Irrelevant and that behavior and personality Changes based on Context/Environment.

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5

Situationist(s)

People who believe that Personality is Dependent On The Situation are called _______________.

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6

Temperament

A baby's Typical Mood, Emotionality, and Preferred Activity Level.

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7

High Reactive

A Temperament marked by Apprehension as well as Intense and Fearful reactions to New Experiences or People.

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8

Low Reactive

A Temperament marked by Sociability and a Calm nature in New Situations.

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9

T(rue)

True/False: Studies of Temperament show that Irritable Babies tend to Continue to be irritable Later in Life.

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10

A

A Type ___(A/B) Personality is one that is Organized, Rigid, Scheduled, Planned, Intense, and Sometimes Hostile.

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11

B

A Type ___(A/B) Personality is one that is Easy Going, Spontaneous, More Creative, and Less Stressed.

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12

Trait (Theory)

The Personality Theory that states that people have certain Inborn Characteristics about them that are Stable Across Time and Situations.

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13

The Big 5 or Five Factor Model

The Model of Personality which is most widely accepted and attributes 5 Basic Traits to every person (AKA Big Five).

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14

Extraversion

One of the Traits in the Five Factor Model which describes someone who is Talkative, Expressive, Assertive, Gregarious, Highly Active, Humorous, who likes Excitement, and who tends to be Optimistic, Energetic, and Upbeat.

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15

Agreeableness

One of the Traits in the Five Factor Model which describes someone who is Fundamentally Altrustic, Not Critical/Skeptical, likely to Yield, Sympathetic, Warm, Considerate, Trusting, Tolerant, Eager To Help, and Easily Liked by others.

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16

Conscientiousness

One of the Traits in the Five Factor Model which describes someone who is Dependable, Orderly, Responsible, likely to Get Things Done, able to Delay Gratification, has a High Level of Aspiration, and exhibits Highly Ethical Behavior.

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17

Neuroticism

One of the Traits in the Five Factor Model which describes someone who is Self Defeating, Anxious, Concerned about Personal Adequacy, subject to Mood Fluctuations and Negative Emotions, prone to Irrational Ideas, Not always able to Control Impulses, and Less Effective at Coping With Stress.

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18

Openness (to Experience)

One of the Traits in the Five Factor Model which describes someone who prefers New and Unfamiliar Experiences, who Appreciates Knowledge, Art, and Nontraditional Values, and who is Highly Introspective, Attentive to Inner Feelings, Intellectual, and Creative.

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19

Neuroticism

Hans Eysenck proposed a Trait Theory using only Three Traits: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and __________________.

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20

Factor Analysis

A Statistical Method that identifies clusters of data points that all indicate Similar Information to show a pattern.

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21

MMPI

A Test that uses Hundreds of True/False question that can Diagnose Disorders and also indicate Personality. It is the Most Widely Used Personality Test in the US.

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22

Trait

A Criticism of ____________ Theory is that it Underestimates the Variability of Behavior from Situation to Situation.

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23

Trait

A Criticism of ____________ Theory is that it doesn't often discuss Where Personality Comes From.

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24

(Sigmund) Freud

A 19th Century Neurologist who developed his Psychoanalytic Theory.

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25

Psychoanalytic (Theory)

A Personality Theory that places an emphasis on Unconscious Drives, Needs, and Conflicts, especially those rooted in Early Childhood (AKA Psychodynamics).

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26

Free Association

The exercise of Saying the First Thing that Comes To Mind in response to some stimulus, designed to Access the Unfiltered, Unconscious Mind.

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27

Freudian Slip

A Social Exhibit where someone says something that they Don't Mean To, which Freud argues is the Unconscious Mind letting something out.

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28

Projective (Test)

A Psychological Test, such as the Thematic Apperception Test or the Rorschach Test, where the subject Describes Something and thus reveals some part of their Personality.

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29

Thematic Apperception (Test)

A Projective Test that presents the subject a Picture and requires them to Tell a Story about it, which reveals inner Personality tendencies.

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30

Rorschach (Test)

A Projective Test that presents the subject an Ink Blot and requires them to Describe What They See in it, revealing inner Personality tendencies.

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31

Libido

The name for Sexual Energy which, according to Psychoanalytic Theory, is the Driving Life Force.

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32

Id

The Impulsive part of the Unconscious Mind which seeks Immediate Gratification and to Meet Needs Without Restriction.

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33

Superego

The Harsh Conscience that strives for Moral Perfection that straddles both the Conscious and Unconscious mind.

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34

Ego

The part of the Conscious Mind that Mediates conflicts between the Id and the Superego.

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35

Pleasure (Principle)

The Operating Principle of the Id that states that all behavior is Pleasure Driven.

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36

Reality (Principle)

The Operating Principle of the Ego that states that you must decide, Realistically, how to get what you want.

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37

F(alse)

True/False: Freud believed that Humans are Naturally Meant to live in Civilization.

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38

Superego

The _____________(Id/Ego/Superego) Develops Last.

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39

Psychosexual Stage (Theory)

Freud's Theory on the Changing Sexual Focus as one gets older.

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40

Oral

The First Psychosexual Stage, from 0 to 18 months old, where kids get sexual pleasure Orally, trying to put Everything in their mouths to emulate Breastfeeding.

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41

Fixation

The process of getting Stuck in a Psychosexual Stage which leads to problems later in life.

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42

Oral

A Fixation on this Psychosexual Stage may lead to Alcoholism, Excessive Profanity, Overeating, Chewing Fingernails, and more problems.

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43

Anal

The Second Psychosexual Stage, from 2 to 3 years old, where the Libido Redirected to the Anus, especially with Toilet Training.

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44

Anal Retentive

A Fixation on the Anal Stage that results from Parental Criticism towards Toilet Training Accidents, which causes the person to be Uptight and Controlling.

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45

Anal Expulsive

A Fixation on the Anal Stage that results from Parental Indulgence, which causes the person to be Messy and Disorganized.

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46

Phallic

The Third Psychosexual Stage, from 3 to 5 years old, where the Libido Redirected to the Genitals and the child faces either the Oedipal or Electra complex, eventually Identifying with their parent.

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47

Oedipal (Complex)

The Psychosexual Tendency for young Boys to lust after their Mothers, thus leading to Castration Anxiety from their fathers. It must be overcome by Identifying with the Father.

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48

Electra (Complex)

The Psychosexual Tendency for young Girls to lust after their Fathers. It must be overcome by Identifying with the Father.

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49

Penis Envy

The feeling of Inferiority which Girls feel that stems from the lack of a Penis.

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50

Castration Anxiety

The fear that young Boys have, when noticing the lack of a Penis on young Girls, that they too may Lose It when at odds with their Father by lusting after their Mother.

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51

Identification

The Defense Mechanism of a young child Realizing that they will Not be able to Win Over their Opposite Gender Parent, so they attempt to Be Like their parent of the Same Gender. This also marks an important part of Superego Development.

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52

Latency

The Fourth Psychosexual Stage, from 6 to 12 years old, where Sexual Energy is Dormant, and the opposite sexes largely Do Not Interact with Each Other.

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53

Genital

The Final Psychosexual Stage, from Puberty Onward, which marks Normal Sexual Interest and Behaviors.

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54

Defense Mechanism(s)

Freudian methods of coping with Difficult/Traumatic Situations which can be Maladaptive in Excess.

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55

Denial

The Defense Mechanism marked by Rejecting the Truth of a Painful Reality.

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56

Displacement

The Defense Mechanism marked by Taking Out an Emotion on a Safe or More Accessible target than the Source. The outcome is still Negative.

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57

Repression

The Defense Mechanism marked by Unconscious Forgetting of some memory that is buried so Deeply that it is no longer a part of the individual.

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58

Projection

The Defense Mechanism marked by Attributing something one doesn't like about Themselves to Someone Else.

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59

Rationalization

The Defense Mechanism marked by Self Justification or Excuse Making that is Sometimes Unconscious.

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60

Sublimation

The Defense Mechanism marked by Substituting a socially Acceptable Emotion/Reaction for True Feelings. The outcome here is Positive.

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61

Regression

The Defense Mechanism marked by Figuratively going Back in Time, especially to Childhood, to a Safer, Simpler way of being.

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62

Reaction Formation

The Defense Mechanism marked by Unconsciously protecting oneself from undesirable emotions by Behaving in ways Opposite to how they Truly Feel.

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63

Psychoanalytic

A Criticism of ____________ Theory is that it is Subjective in interpreting Unverifiable phenomena and that it is Not Falsifiable.

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64

Neo (Freudian)

Someone who supported some Freudian ideas, but also Built Upon Them is referred to as a ___________ Freudian.

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65

(Carl) Jung

A Neo Freudian who proposed the Collective Unconscious, was more Positive about human nature than Freud, and was the First to describe Extraversion as an Essential Personality Element.

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66

Collective Unconscious

A set of Common Themes, or Archetypes, inherited from the wealth of human experience by all people which Inform Personality.

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67

Archetype

A Typical Example of a certain person or thing.

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68

(Karen) Horney

The Neo Freudian who proposed Womb Envy, Basic Anxiety, and argued that Social and Cultural factors play a larger role in Personality than Freud did.

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69

Womb Envy

The Male Jealousy of the Female ability to Have Children, created in response to Freud's Penis Envy, though Horney did accept that Females were jealous of the Male Societal Position.

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70

Basic Anxiety

The phenomenon, proposed by Karen Horney, that everyone is driven by a kind of Unease in a dangerous world.

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71

(Alfred) Adler

A Neo Freudian who believed that Social Factors play a Primary Role in personality development, and proposed in the Inferiority Complex.

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72

Inferiority Complex

The phenomenon where we all have the Drive to be Competent, but as Children we develop a sense of Inferiority. We then Strive For Superiority to compensate for our Inadequacies.

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73

Preconscious (Mind)

The part of the figurative Iceberg of the Unconscious Mind that is Just Below the Surface, but can be seen if looked for.

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74

T(rue)

True/False: Adopted Children Generally have personalities that align more with their Biological Parent than their Adoptive Parents.

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75

Trait

A Tendency toward certain Behaviors or Emotions no matter the situation.

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76

Behaviorist (Theory)

The Personality Theory that states that personality is developed through Reinforcement of different Behaviors throughout different situations.

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77

Social Cognitive (Theory)

The Personality Theory that states that personality develops from our Thinking, Judgements, Attributions, and Self-Perceptions.

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78

(Albert) Bandura

The Psychologist who is the main proponent of the Social Cognitive Theory of personality and believes in the role of Environmental/Social Interaction as well as Human Thought in personality development.

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79

Reciprocal Determinism

Proposed by Albert Bandura, this is the ongoing interaction between Making Choices over which Environment to be in and the Experiences afforded from those environments, from which Personality Emerges.

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80

Self Efficacy

The sense that one can Control Outcomes in one's environments, which is important in Reciprocal Determinism.

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81

Internal Locus of Control

Proposed by Julian Rotter, this is the Feeling that, to a large extent, one can Control the Consequences of their Behaviors.

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82

External Locus of Control

Proposed by Julian Rotter, this is the Feeling that, to a large extent, Outcomes of Behaviors are Out of One's Control.

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83

Attribution (Theory)

Proposed by Fritz Heider, this is the Theory that Categorizes how individuals account for their Behavior and the Behaviors of Others.

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84

Dispositional (Attribution)

Attribution that involves Attributing Outcomes to Oneself (Ex: blaming yourself for a failure).

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85

Situational (Attribution)

Attribution that involves Attributing Outcomes to Some Environmental Factor

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86

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to explain behavior in Others as being a result of Their Disposition, ignoring any Situational Factors that might account for their behavior.

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87

Self Serving (Bias)

A Bias which is the tendency to explain Negative Behaviors in Ourselves as being a result of Situational Factors, and not our Disposition.

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88

(Martin) Seligman

The Social Cognitive Theorist in terms of personality who proposed Learned Helplessness as well as Explanatory Styles.

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89

Learned Helplessness

The phenomenon where if a person Tries hard to affect some outcome and Continuously Fails, they will soon Stop Trying altogether.

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90

Optimistic (Explanatory Style)

An Explanatory Style where people are More Likely to tell themselves that bad times are Not Likely To Last and should not Affect Their Lives too much.

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91

Pessimistic (Explanatory Style)

An Explanatory Style where people see Bad Times as Stable and Unlikely to Change. Painful Events impact their entire life, and they are More Likely to Blame Themselves for Traumas they experience.

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92

Humanistic (Theory)

The most Upbeat and Optimistic Personality Theory which proposes that personality develops through the Conscious exercise of Free Will in actualizing one's Fullest Potential.

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93

Behaviorist

A Humanist would contend that Psychoanalytic and _________________ Perspectives are too Deterministic/Underestimate the importance of Free Will.

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94

Self Actualization

Proposed by Abraham Maslow, this is the Human Desire to reach one's Fullest Potential.

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95

Unconditional Positive Regard

Humanist Carl Rogers felt that people could reach Self Actualization through relationships with _________________ ______________ _______________, or relationships where you are Loved No Matter What.

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96

Conditions of Worth

The Requirements/Expectations to be met for a relationship that does not have UPR to Survive.

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97

Self Concept

Proposed by Carl Rogers, this is how one thinks about oneself.

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98

Ideal (Self)

A type of Self Concept which is how one Strives to be.

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99

Real (Self)

A type of Self Concept which is how one Actually is.

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100

Incongruence

A term to describe the Difference between the Ideal and Real selves.

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