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Social loafing

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Business

140 Terms

1

Social loafing

a phenomenon in which people will exert very little effort within a group environment with a task set for people within the group

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2

Social compensation

occurs when some group members work harder in a group, to cover for the other group members performance

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3

Leadership

a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal

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4

What is power and who examined it

a person's potential to influence others to act. David McClelland examined people's need for power

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5

leadership motive pattern

David McClelland found that this pattern is grounded in a need for power, and is generally associated with high managerial performance

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6

What are the types of powers

legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, informational, referent, and persuasive

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legitimate power

power due to the position of authority held

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8

reward power

power due to control over rewards

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9

coercive power

power due to control over punishments

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expert power

power due to control because of knowledge, skills, or expertise

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11

informational power

power due to control over information

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12

referent power

power due to control because subordinates respect, admire, and identify with the leader

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13

persuasive power

power due to the ability to use logic and facts to persuade

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14

organizational authority/position power types

legitimate, reward, and coercive power

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personal power types

based on characteristics of an individual, expert, informational, referent, and persuasive power

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abuse of power

using any type of power to demean, exploit, or take advantage of another or influencing someone to do something the person later regrets

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17

empowerment

sharing power with employees and giving them the authority to make and implement at least some decisions. it requires managers allowing power and control over work and managers providing training, resources, and coaching to act empowered

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18

influence tactics and the different kinds

how people translate their power to affect the behavior of others. coalition tactics, consultation, exchange, ingratiation, inspirational appeals, legitimating tactics, personal appeals, pressure, and rational persuasion(or reason)

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19

coalition tactics

engaging the help of others to persuade someone to do something

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20

consultation

requesting someone's advice to solve a problem or mutually setting goals to increase a follower's commitment to the leader's decision

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21

exchange

offering to exchange something of value now or in the future for someone's cooperation

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22

ingratiation

flattering or praising people to put them in a good mood or to make them more likely to want to help

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23

inspirational appeals

appealing to someone's aspirations, values, and ideals to gain his or her commitment

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24

legitimating tactics

enhancing one's formal authority to make a certain request by referring to rules, precedents, or official documents

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personal appeals

asking someone to do something "because we are friends" or asking for a personal favor

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pressure

using coercion or persistent follow-up or reminders to gain influence; risk undesirable side effects such as resentment

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27

rational persuasion (or reason)

using logic and facts to persuade someone

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28

influence

the capacity to have an effect on someone or something

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29

upward influence

influencing superiors

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30

six primary upward influence tactics

ingratiation, exchange, rationality, assertiveness, coalition formation, upward appeals

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upward influence styles

combinations of upward influence tactics that tend to be used together

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4 upward influence styles

shotgun-uses the most influence and emphasizes assertiveness and bargaining tactician-uses an average amount of influence and emphasizes reason bystander-uses little influence with superiors ingratiator- uses friendliness strategy but also uses the other influence strategies to some extent

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33

organizational politics

social influence attempts directed at those who can provide rewards that will help promote or protect the self-interests of the actor

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political tactics used in organizations

controlling information, controlling lines of communication, using outside experts, controlling the agenda, game playing, image building, building coalitions, controlling decision parameters, eliminating political rivals

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common causes of political behavior in organizations

conflict, uncertainty, scarcity of valued resources, conflict avoidance, organizational policies

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36

impression management

the process of portraying a desired image or attitude to control the impression others form of us

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37

Trait leadership

the certain inborn or innate qualities and characteristics make someone a leader

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38

behavioral leadership

focuses on how leaders behave, and assumes that these traits can be copied by other leaders

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39

situational approach

shows that approaches to problems are based on the situation

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40

path-goal theory of leadership

suggests that effective leaders clarify the paths (behaviors) that will lead to desired rewards (goals)

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41

Leader-Member Exchange Theory

stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates

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42

transformational leadership

the set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively

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43

organizational design

the process of selecting and managing aspects of organizational structure and culture to enable the organization to achieve its goals

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44

organizational structure

the formal system of task, power, and reporting relationships

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45

what does organizational structure tell us

how the work is divided (reporting relationships), the physical layout (flat or tall), identifies grouping of individuals into departments, and established a system that ensures effective communication

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46

elements of organizational structure

centralization, decentralization, hierarchical levels, departmentalization, and formalization

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47

centralization

concentrate power and decision-making authority at higher levels of the organization

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48

decentralization

the authority for making decisions affecting an organization is distributed. the lower level employees who are closer to the problem have more control and are responsible for solving those problems

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49

hierarchical levels

tells us the layout of an organization which may be tall or flat structures. tells you the number of levels, the distance from the front line employees to higher level management

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50

tall organizational structure

many levels between high and low. employees may report to fewer managers because their groups may be smaller with more supervision. Advantages are it may provide employees with a higher sense of job security, more satisfied because the organization may be better established. More opportunities within an organization

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51

flat organizational structure

the managers have to supervise more people, more employees reporting to the managers. Therefore there may not be close supervision. Disadvantages may be higher levels of ambiguity so employees may not know fully about what they are supposed to be doing. Another disadvantage is that it provides limited opportunities

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52

departmentalization

the work is divided so you have many functional departments and divisional departments.

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53

functional departments

the jobs are grouped based on the specialization. For example, under a functional department, you may have an accounting department or IT department

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54

divisional departments

the employees are generalized so they may work in different areas like products, customer service, or services which can be interchangeable

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55

formalization

The degree to which your rules, regulations, and guidelines are written. Advantages to this reduces ambiguity, and provides direction for employees. Disadvantages is that it may reduce innovation, motivation, and job satisfaction, and slows the pace of decision making

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56

mechanistic organizations

the organization is focused on rules and regulations. The communication channels are formal and centralized, very rigid and resistant to change. it is bureaucratic

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57

organic organizations

may have a flat organizational configuration, free flowing, decentralized. There are unclear hierarchy levels, job descriptions are broader and employees perform duties based on specific needs of the organization

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58

matrix

when an organization is a matrix this means it is multi-focused, so it will have a concentration where some departments may focus on products it makes. For example Apple has one specific department for iPhones, one specific department for MacBook, one specific department for iPad

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59

advantages to matrix organizations

increases communication, increases the cooperation among departments, and provides quick responses to technical problems and customer issues

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60

boundaryless organization

structure is not traditional, it eliminates barriers between departments. it may collaborate with another organization on the outside instead of departments within the organization itself. ex: Starbucks collaborated with Pepsi for one of their drinks in order to create a stronger market campaign

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61

learning organizations

organizations that facilitate the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself

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advantages to learning organizations

improved innovation, knowledge sharing, problem solving, strengthened community, continual learning, and greater efficiency

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disadvantages to learning organizations

When employees are learning here they need an aftermath reflection of what they learned. If employees aren't learning, then the purpose of a learning organization is not achieved. Time consuming and issues with power difference. Different learning levels in terms of individuals and groups so there are different requirements of learning

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64

organizational culture

a system of shared values, norms, and assumptions that guides employee attitudes and behavior. OC also influences how employees perceive and react to their environment

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65

what are the dimensions of OC

artifacts, assumptions, espoused values, enacted values

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artifacts

the physical manifestation of the culture including open offices, awards, ceremonies, and formal lists of values

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assumptions

those organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they became the core of the company's culture

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68

espoused values and norms

the preferred values and norms explicitly stated by the organization

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enacted values and norms

values and norms that employees exhibit based on their observations of what actually goes on in the organization

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70

what are the benefits of organizational culture

Controls employee behavior, tells you what behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate within that specific organization, Boosts employee performance, also a source of competitive advantage

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71

types of organizational cultures

conflict culture which have shared norms for managing conflict and inclusion cultures which are the extent to which majority members value efforts to increase minority representation, and whether the qualifications and abilities of minority members are questioned

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active conflict management norms

resolve conflict openly

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73

passive conflict management norms

avoid addressing conflict

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agreeable conflict management norms

resolve conflict in a cooperative manner

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75

disagreeable conflict management norms

resolve conflict competitively

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dominating conflict culture

active and disagreeable - open confrontations are accepted as well as heated arguments and threats

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collaborative conflict culture

active and agreeable. Employees actively manage and resolve conflicts cooperatively to find the best solution for all involved parties.

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avoidant conflict culture

passive and agreeable, strives to preserve order and control and/or to maintain harmony and interpersonal relationships

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passive-aggressive conflict culture

passive and disagreeable, conflict handled by refusing to participate

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80

demographic diversity inclusion culture

how receptive is the group to accepting people of other ethnicities or various backgrounds working within certain roles

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81

how to manage organizational culture

three elements of managing organization culture are (1) taking advantage of the existing culture, (2) teaching the organizational culture, and (3) changing the organization culture

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82

organizational change

the modification or transformation of an organization through its structure, process, products and services

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83

organizational design

the process of selecting and managing aspects of organizational structure and culture to enable the organization to achieve its goals

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84

external factors that can lead to change

  1. customer needs change 2.competition

  2. changes in legislation and regulations

  3. demographic change in labor force like baby boomers retiring and younger people hired

  4. globalization so it can take advantage of global markets

  5. changes in technology

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85

internal factors that can lead to change

  1. perceived problems within its operation

  2. creativity and innovation

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86

individual barriers that resist change

personality, fear of the unknown, and fear of failure

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87

organizational barriers that resist change

too narrow focus, limited resources, and threatened power

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88

kurt lewin's model of change, what are the three stages

unfreeze- the process by which people become aware of the need for change change- during this stage you implement the change, the actual change takes place, you want to have employees that support your plan refreezing- the process of making new behaviors relatively permanent and resistant to further change

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89

communication

the transmission of information from one person to another to create a shared understanding and feeling

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90

six parts of the communication process

  1. encoding

  2. message

  3. channel

  4. decoding

  5. feedback

  6. noise

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encoding

converting a thought, idea, or fact into a message composed of symbols, pictures, or words

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message

the encoded information being sent

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channel

is the medium used to send the message to the receiver, including voice, writing, graphs, videos, intranets, the Internet, and body language

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decoding

the interpretation and translation of the message back into something understood by the receiver

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95

feedback

a check on the success of the communication

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96

noise

anything that blocks, distorts, or changes in any way the message the sender intended to communicate

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97

nonverbal communication

communications that are not spoken or written but that have meaning to others

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98

body language

a body movement such as a gesture or expression that conveys information to others

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99

verbal intonation

the emphasis given to spoken words and phrases

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100

barriers of communication

-selective perception -misperception -filtering -information overload -organizational barriers -cultural barriers -high context and low context cultures -noise

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